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14 Bit A/D Conversion
Analog to Digital conversion is usually the first stage in the process of converting an analog signal coming from the image sensor via multiple channels into digital data for the image processing and storage of image data. The higher the bit rate of this conversion, the higher the image quality. Nikon D-SLRs typically offer a 16 bit image processing pipeline, which converts images of 12 bit or 14 bit depth quickly and efficiently.
153 Focus Point System
Select Nikon DSLRs such as the D5 and D500 feature a system of 153 focus points, which broadly cover the image area at a high density for more accurate acquisition of subjects; 55 of which are selectable focus points. There are 99* cross sensors, of which 35* are user selectable (*depending upon the lens being used). Compatibility with f/8—15 focus points (9 are selective and the center 5 are cross sensors).
1 NIKKOR
The trade name given to the NIKKOR lenses that have been designed for optimal use with the CX-format Nikon 1 digital camera system.
256-bit Encryption
256 bit Encryption is a security protocol that is characterized by key sizes that may be any multiple of 32 bits, both with a minimum of 128 and a maximum of 256 bits. This is a secure and very fast encryption type for both software and computers.
3D Color Matrix Metering II
Matrix metering evaluates multiple segments of a scene to determine the best exposure by essentially splitting the scene into sections, evaluating either 420-segments or 1,005 segments, depending on the Nikon D-SLR in use. The 3D Color Matrix Meter II takes into account the scene's contrast and brightness, the subject's distance (via a D- or G-type NIKKOR lens), the color of the subject within the scene and RGB color values in every section of the scene. 3D Color Matrix Metering II also uses special exposure-evaluation algorithms, optimized for digital imaging, that detect highlight areas. The meter then accesses a database of over 30,000 actual images to determine the best exposure for the scene. Once the camera receives the scene data, its powerful microcomputer and the database work together to provide the finest automatic exposure control available.
3D Focus Tracking
An invaluable feature for sports, action and wildlife photography, 3D focus tracking, available in select Nikon D-SLRs, automatically shifts the focus point to follow the movement of the subject. With the shutter release pressed halfway, you'll see in the viewfinder the lens continuously maintain focus as the subject moves.

However, maintaining focus doesn't guarantee a sharp image, as there is a short time lag between the release of the shutter and the capture of the picture. To solve this problem, the focus tracking system is a predictive system that uses special algorithms to forecast the position of the subject at the moment the image is captured. The prediction is based on a measurement of the subject's movement and speed.

Simple predictive tracking is very effective for pictures of a subject moving at constant speed toward the camera, but to provide maximum focusing performance for a subject that abruptly changes direction at high speed, or a subject with low contrast, moving randomly, the AF system must accumulate subject location data using multiple focus areas. The AF modules built into selected Nikon D-SLRs have as many as 51 focus areas that can detect vertical, horizontal and diagonal movement of the subject.

To realize high-precision AF for high-speed continuous shooting of a fast-moving subject, the processing speed of the AF cycle is vital. To provide that speed, a Nikon proprietary technology called overlap servo prepares for the focus detection of the next shot while the lens-driving operation for the current shot is in process.
3D Matrix Metering
An exclusive Nikon feature, Matrix metering applies three types of data to calculate exposure: scene brightness, scene contrast and the focused subject’s distance (which requires the use of a D-type NIKKOR lens).
3D Mode
The Nikon COOLPIX S100 digital camera offers a 3D mode, which in effect takes two images that are played back on a 3D compatible TV or monitor for stereoscopic viewing.
3D Mode
3D Multi-Sensor Balanced Fill-flash
An automatic, balanced fill-flash system in which the flash fires a series of pre-flashes just before the first shutter curtain moves.
3D Playback Mode
Only 3D images can be viewed in the 3D Playback Mode. It can only be chosen when the 3D-capable Nikon COOLPIX digital camera is connected to a 3D compatible TV or monitor via an HDMI cable.
3D Tracking (11-points) AF-Area Mode
The 3D-tracking AF-Area Mode is an AF-Area Mode that is available in select Nikon digital cameras. When the user is in either AF-A or AF-C focus modes, the user selects the focus point. As long as the shutter button is kept pressed halfway, if the subject moves after the camera has focused, the camera uses 3D-tracking to select a new focus point and keep the focus locked on the original subject. If the subject leaves the viewfinder, remove your finger from the shutter release button and recompose the photograph with the subject in the selected focus point.
3D Tracking (11-points) AF-Area Mode
4K
4K is an emerging standard for digital motion picture resolution. The standard is so named because it refers to its approx. 4,000 pixels of horizontal resolution. 4K incorporates a number of aspect ratios that all utilize 4,000 pixels of horizontal resolution x differing numbers of pixels of vertical resolution. This is contrary to the standard HD resolutions of 720p and 1080p which represent the number of vertical pixels.
4K UHD
4K is an emerging standard for digital motion picture resolution. 4K UHD is 3840x2160 and provides four times as much resolution as Full HD (1920x1080).
4 Second Movie
A movie option that is available in select cameras such as the Nikon 1 V3. Record a 4-second movie clip. Multiple clips can be joined into a single movie using the Combine 4-second movies option in the playback menu.
4 Second Movie
51 Point Autofocus System
Available in selected Nikon D-SLRs, the 51-point AF system positions 51 points of focus within the frame to allow photographers to choose a variety of focus configurations to suit the shooting situation.

The 51-area grid forms a wide rectangle across the frame, with minimal spacing between each AF area. The system keeps even quick-moving subjects in focus across a wide extent of the frame. The 15 points of the three center rows of focus points employ cross-type sensors for powerful focus detection.
91,000 pixel RGB 3D Matrix Metering III
Face detection using the optical viewfinder and detailed scene analysis using the 91,000 pixel RGB 3D Matrix Metering III sensor with the advanced scene recognition system enables superior auto exposure, auto white balance detection, AF performance and i-TTL flash exposure.
AA (Auto Aperture mode on Nikon Speedlights)
The flash uses its sensor to control the flash output in combination with data automatically transmitted from the camera and lens to the flash including the ISO sensitivity, aperture, focal length and exposure compensation value.
AAC
AAC is a standard audio file format. Nikon cameras record audio to the AAC monaural file format.
Aberration
An aberration prevents light from being brought into sharp focus. The ideal image by lenses (especially photographic lenses), must fulfill three key conditions, namely, 1. all light from the point object must be focused to a single point on the image plane (film or digital sensor); 2. when the object plane is perpendicular to the optical axis, the image plane must also be perpendicular; and 3. the object and the image (on the film or imaging sensor) must closely resemble each other. In reality, however, light refraction by the lens causes a variety of defects in the image, called aberration. The five most common types in aberration are SEIDEL's five aberrations, which occur even with monochromatic (single-wavelength) light. In addition, there are also two types of chromatic aberrations, which are caused by more than one frequency. It is impossible to eliminate them all, but in the lens design process, they can be controlled and balanced to provide the best possible result for that lens and application. This is handled by material (glass) selection, shape and positioning.
Action Control
A mode incorporated into select cameras such as the Nikon COOLPIX AW100 and AW110 digital cameras and the Nikon 1 AW1. When the action control is set to ON, you can control certain functions of the camera simply by swinging it in the air. The default setting is HIGH, which means that even if the camera is shaken by a small amount, it will register. When set to LOW, a large amount of movement is needed to register by the camera.
Action Control
Active D-Lighting
Active D-Lighting optimizes high contrast images to restore the shadow and highlight details that are often lost when strong lighting increases the contrast between bright and dark areas of an image. It can be set to operate automatically or manually, and it's also possible to bracket pictures to get one with Active D-Lighting and one without.

Active D-Lighting's image optimization, which takes place in the camera at the moment the photo is taken, applies digital processing only to the necessary portion(s) of the image. Even when shooting a subject with a wide dynamic range, Active D-Lighting is able to reproduce a realistic image that retains natural contrast. 
Add a Bubble Effect
Add a Bubble Effect is a special effect found in select Nikon COOLPIX cameras such as the S32, it allows you to add a bubble effect to your images, so your subject will look as if it is projected on a bubble. A guide will be displayed in the monitor, and you simply compose your shot so the subject is within the guide.
Add a Bubble Effect
Add a Cartoon Effect
Add a Cartoon Effect is a special effect found in select Nikon COOLPIX cameras such as the S32. When chosen, the camera performs tone compensation to make the image appear like a cartoon.
Add a Cartoon Effect
Add a Neon Effect
Add a Neon Effect is a special effect found on select COOLPIX cameras such as the S32, which when chosen, makes the outlines of a subject appear to glow with neon tubing.
Add a Neon Effect
Add Highlight Tag
The KeyMission 170 action camera incorporates an Add Highlight Tag feature, which allows you to tag certain sections of your video by pressing the function button on the remote control during movie playback. This feature is the default setting of the Function button on the camera’s remote control. You can then select Create movie digest, in which the camera automatically combines the tag-attached sections (2.5 seconds before and after each tag) and saves the it together as a separate movie with sound.
Add Slow Motion
This is a feature of select cameras such as the KeyMission 170 action camera, which allow you to add slow motion to a portion of your video capture, as its being recorded. This is done by assigning Add Slow Motion mode to the function button on the KeyMission 170’s remote control and pressing the function button to activate the feature while shooting. The slow motion mode captures footage as a high-frame-rate movie.
Add Starbursts
Add Starbursts is a Picture Play feature that is available on select COOLPIX digital cameras. Choosing it will cause star-like rays of light to radiate outward from bright objects such as sunlight reflections or street lights. This effect is suitable for night scenes.
Add Starbursts
Adjustable Zoom Speeds
Certain 1 NIKKOR lenses feature adjustable zoom speeds, for versatility when shooting both stills and movies.
ADL Bracketing
Bracketing automatically varies a given set of variables dependent upon which type of bracketing is chosen. Use bracketing in situations where it may be difficult to set exposure or to experiment with different settings for the same subject. ADL Bracketing is Active D-Lighting Bracketing and when chosen it takes one photo with Active D-Lighting off and another one at the current Active D-Lighting setting.
ADL Bracketing
Advanced Movie Mode
The Advanced Movie Mode allows you to film slow-motion or HD movies in PSAM modes on select Nikon 1 cameras including the V2.
Advanced Movie Mode
AE Bracketing
Bracketing automatically varies a given set of variables dependent upon which type of bracketing is chosen. Use bracketing in situations where it may be difficult to set exposure or to experiment with different settings for the same subject. AE Bracketing will bracket the exposure over a series of three photographs. The first shot is unmodified, the second shot has a reduced exposure and the third shot has the exposure increased.
AE Bracketing
AE Lock
AE lock is used to hold an automatically selected shutter speed and/or aperture.
AES Encryption
AES stands for Advanced Encryption Standard. This is the preferred standard that is used to encrypt commercial and government data.
AF Area Modes
Nikon's three AF Area Modes—Single Point AF, Dynamic Area AF and Auto Area AF—are designed to handle any shooting situation. With good light control and a static subject, Single Point AF ensures that the most important element in the composition, such as the eyes in a portrait, will be sharply focused. With Dynamic Area AF, you can select from several focusing options: 9-, 21- or all 51-point AF. Select a Single AF point and the areas surrounding it serve as backup—a significant advantage when shooting moving subjects. Select the 9-point option when you want to focus on erratically moving subjects with greater accuracy. When dealing with insufficient contrast for fast focus detection, choosing 21 or 51 points makes detection easier. The 51-point option also allows for 3D Focus Tracking, which uses color information from the RGB metering sensor to automatically follow moving subjects across the AF points. Auto Area AF uses color information and special face recognition algorithms to automatically focus on an individual's face, which is extremely helpful when there's simply no time to select a focus point, or when using Live View in hand-held mode at high or low angles.
AF Assist Illuminator
A beam of light automatically activated to provide the camera's autofocus system the necessary light to operate in poorly lit situations. The AF assist illuminator's light does not appear in the picture.
AF-I NIKKOR Lens
A NIKKOR lens with a built-in conventional rotor type autofocus drive motor.
AF Lock
Autofocus lock is typically used to hold focus on the part of the scene that's most important to you.
AF-S: Autofocus Silent
Focusing is driven by a "Silent Wave" motor in the lens instead of the focus drive motor in the camera. AF-S lenses focus faster than standard AF-NIKKORs and almost completely silently. AF-S lenses with a "II" designation weigh less and are generally smaller than their equivalent predecessors.
AF Sensor
The AF sensor is a sensor used to detect focus.
AF Servo
Essentially, motor-driven autofocus; engage it and a digital SLR's autofocus system will continuously track (focus) on a moving subject.
A.GPS
An Assist GPS (A.GPS) file is an updated file of GPS data that can be downloaded from the web and uploaded into select Nikon digital cameras to shorten the time needed by the camera to track the GPS positioning information. The website housing the A.GPS file is http://nikonimglib.com/agps/index.html. Once you download the file to your computer, follow the instructions in your camera's manual.
AI (Automatic Maximum Aperture Indexing) System
AI became standard on Nikon cameras and NIKKOR lenses in 1977. Non-AI lenses coupled to the camera's meter through a system that required a pin on the camera to be mated to a slotted prong on the lens before the lens was mounted, then the aperture ring on the lens had to be turned from one extreme to the other to index the meter to the maximum aperture of the lens. AI eliminates this entire procedure because meter coupling and indexing occur automatically when the lens is mounted on the camera. Most AI lenses made until a few years ago were also supplied with the coupling prong so they would be compatible with either metering system.
AI-P
A manual-focus NIKKOR lens with a built-in CPU which transfers data from the lens to the camera's metering systems.
Airplane Mode
Airplane Mode disables all wireless or GPS connections on a camera. Select Nikon COOLPIX cameras have built-in GPS or wireless connectivity and must be placed in airplane mode when flying in a plane, in hospitals and other such locations.
AI-S: Automatic Indexing (modified)
AI-S coupling is a refinement of AI and became standard on NIKKOR lenses in 1982. The diaphragm action in an AI-S lens is compatible with Nikon cameras that allow the aperture to be controlled from the camera, as is required for programmed and shutter-priority automatic exposure control. All AF-NIKKOR lenses, as well as most manual-focus NIKKOR lenses made since 1982, are AI-S.
Aliasing
A type of digital image distortion most often seen when straight lines or edges in a digital image are enlarged to the point at which they appear jagged.
A/M
A/M stands for Auto-Priority Manual Mode. This mode also enables an easy transition from autofocus to manual during AF operation. However, mode switch sensitivity has been altered to reduce the possibility of sudden unintentional switching to manual focus while shooting.
A/M
A-M
A-M stands for Auto-Manual Mode. Thanks to a mechanism incorporated in the lens barrel, smooth focusing operation in Manual focus mode is realized in the same way as users have become accustomed to with conventional manual-focus lenses by adding an appropriate torque to the focus ring.
A-M
Ambient Light
The natural light in a scene.
Angle of Flash Coverage
The measurement in degrees of the angle formed by lines projecting from the center of the flash to the extremities of the field of coverage.
Angle of Incidence
The angle of light hitting a surface. A basic rule of physics says that the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflectance, which means that the angle of the light coming towards the surface is the same as the angle of light reflected off of the surface. For example, if light hitting a surface came from a light source that was on a 45 degree angle from the surface, the light reflecting off of the surface would travel on a 45 degree angle as well. 
Angle of Reflectance
See Angle of Incidence.
Angle of View
A (Non-TTL Auto mode on Nikon Speedlights)
The flash uses its sensor to measure the flash illumination reflected back from the subject controlling flash output to give correct exposure.
Anti-Aliasing
An optical process that samples the edges of an image to fill in the missing areas that cause a jagged appearance.
Aperture
The circular opening inside the lens that can change in diameter to control the amount of light reaching a camera's sensor or film. The diameter is expressed in numbers called f/stops; the lower the number, the larger the aperture opening.
Aperture-Priority Auto Exposure
A shutter speed that is automatically selected by the camera to match the photographer's manually set lens aperture for a correct exposure. Especially useful for controlling depth-of-field.
Application
A computer program, such as an image editor or image browser.
Applications (Apps)
The COOLPIX S800c and S810c digital cameras feature the Android platform, which runs apps or applications that can be downloaded to the camera, for shooting and sharing of digital images and video.
Applications (Apps)
APS-C
APS-C stands for Advanced Photo System-type C, which is an image sensor format that is equivalent to approximately the size of the Advanced Photo System negative (25.1x16.7mm). The Nikon DX format image sensor is an APS-C format sensor.
Archival
The ability of a material, including some printing papers and compact discs, to last for many years.
ASA
Measure of a film's "light gathering" capability. Replaced by ISO for film and digital.
Aspect Ratio
The width of an image divided by its height. In still photography, common aspect ratios are 4:3 (images from digital cameras) and 3:2 (images from film cameras).
Aspherical Lens
A lens with a curved, non-spherical surface. Used to reduce aberrations and enable a more compact lens size. Aspherical lenses minimize coma and other types of lens aberrations, even when used at the widest aperture. They are particularly useful in correcting distortion in wide-angle lenses and help contribute to a lighter, more compact design by reducing the number of standard (spherical) elements necessary. Aspherical lens elements correct these distortions by continuously changing the refractive index from the center of the lens.
Aspherical Lens
Astigmatism
One of Seidel's five aberrations. Astigmatism is an aberration that causes points to blur, degrading sharpness. It can be reduced but not eliminated by stopping down the lens.
Astrophotography
Astrophotography is the specialized type of photography done of the night sky, stars, planets, and other celestial objects. Lunar and Solar eclipses as well as star trails also fall under Astrophotography. Specialized equipment may be necessary in photographing certain celestial subjects like telescopes, solar filters, etc.
Audio Monitoring
Using a visual display or auditory (using headphones) to monitor audio levels. This helps keep audio levels at their optimum level. It also helps to minimize degradation. Volume Unit (VU Meter) and Peak Program (PPM Meter) are common types of meters used to measure audio levels. They can be hardware or software based; regardless of type, the scale and ballistics of the meter are important characteristics.
Auto Area AF
Auto Area AF is one of Nikon's AF Area Modes. Auto Area AF uses color information and special face recognition algorithms to automatically focus on an individual's face, which is extremely helpful when there's simply no time to select a focus point, or when using Live View in hand-held mode at high or low angles.
Auto Area AF
Auto Distortion Control
When you take pictures underwater, the water itself sometimes causes distortion to occur. The Auto Distortion Control, available on select cameras, automatically compensates for this.
Auto Exposure (AE)
In Auto Exposure mode, the camera automatically adjusts the shutter speed and aperture for the optimum exposure for the scene being photographed.
Autofocus (AF)
A system of sensors and motors that allow lenses to obtain focus automatically; in some cameras, the system also allows the lens to maintain focus on a moving subject.
Auto FP High-Speed Sync
Auto FP High Speed Sync is a flash mode used for fill-flash photography under brightly lit conditions. It will fill in and open up shadowed areas in order to portray the greatest detail in subjects. It's also ideal when using wide aperture lenses, and because it allows up to the fastest shutter speeds on compatible Nikon DSLRs, it is often used for action-stopping sports photography. And for portraits, you can open up your lenses to their full aperture in order to isolate your subject against a blurred background without overexposing the image. When Auto FP High Speed Sync is selected, the flash will fire for the duration of the shutter curtain's travel, thus syncing with the camera's shutter speed when that speed is set higher than the camera's normal sync speed.
Auto ISO
Auto ISO or ISO Auto is a feature that allows you to tell the camera to choose which ISO to use if certain parameters are met. For instance, when there is enough light to use ISO 100, the camera does so, but when it would have to use too slow a shutter speed, then it automatically increases the ISO to 200 and maintains a high enough shutter speed to avoid camera shake. Some Nikon digital cameras let you choose from a range that you're willing to shoot within, such as ISO 400 – 800.
Automatic Balanced Fill-Flash
Nikon's TTL (through-the-lens) auto flash operation.
Automatic Exposure (AE)
With automatic exposure (AE) the camera's computer and metering system automatically select the aperture and shutter speed for a correct exposure.
Automatic Exposure Bracketing
A feature that sets the camera to take a series of pictures (usually three) at different exposure settings.
Auto-servo AF
In AF-A or Auto-servo AF, the camera automatically selects Single-servo autofocus if the subject is stationary or Continuous-servo AF if the subject is moving. The shutter will only be released (snap a photo) if the camera is able to focus.
Auto-servo AF
Auto Slow Sync
Auto Slow Sync is a flash mode that is used when shooting portraits at night.
Auto Slow Sync
Auto Slow Sync Red Eye
Auto Slow Sync Red-Eye is a flash mode that combines Red-Eye reduction with Slow Sync. It is used when shooting portraits against a backdrop of night scenery. Use of a tripod is suggested, to prevent blurring caused by camera shake.
Auto Slow Sync Red Eye
Auto White Balance
In Nikon D-SLRs, Auto White Balance combines with the Scene Recognition System to analyze each scene's light sources, cross-referencing this information with 5,000 actual picture data examples from over 20,000 images in the camera's onboard white balance database.

A digital camera's white balance setting compensates for the different colors of various light sources—fluorescent, which has a "green" cast, or a cooler-than-daylight light balance; incandescent, which has a "yellow" or a warmer-than-daylight white balance; and daylight—so that white objects in a scene appear white regardless of the color temperature (the warmth or coolness) of the light source. Even under mixed lighting or difficult light sources like mercury vapor lights, auto white balance technology calculates an ideal white balance for remarkably faithful colors.             

For a thorough understanding of white balance and how it influences the final image, read Lindsay Silverman's article Setting White Balance
Autumn Colors Scene Mode
This scene mode, available on select Nikon digital cameras, is designed to take vivid photographs of scenes with colorful red and yellow autumn leaves.
Autumn Colors Scene Mode
AVC/H.264 (AVCHD)
Advanced Video Coding is a standard for video compression.
AVI
AVI Stands for Audio Video Interleave, a multimedia format used to record video.
A/V Out
Refers to a connection port for output of audio and video from a Nikon camera to a television using RCA plugs (composite yellow for video with mono white or stereo white and red for audio).
Back Arrow
Use the back button to return to the previous screen you were on, when using the COOLPIX S800c or S810c digital cameras.
Back Arrow
Back Focus
Back focal distance, meaning the distance from the tip of the lens' furthest rear surface to the film/image sensor surface where the image is focused.
Background
General term for anything behind the main subject in a photograph.
Backlighting
Lighting that illuminates the subject from a position opposite the position of the camera.
Backscatter
Refers to the effect seen when shooting underwater and the fine suspended particles in the water are illuminated by flash lighting close to the camera's lens, and show up on film or the digital image.
Back-Up
A safety precaution against losing precious image or other electronic data. You can back-up one image file or an entire computer's worth of data. Back-up options include CDs/DVDs, external hard disk drives, and online storage sites such as Nikon Image Space Nikonimagespace.com website. If the original file(s) are lost or corrupted, you can restore them with a back-up copy.
Balanced Composition
An image composed to create a harmonious distribution or arrangement of objects, tones or patterns.
Bandwidth
Bandwidth is the maximum throughput or capacity that a computer network can handle.
Barrel Distortion
A lens effect in which the straight lines in an image appear to be inflated or sphere shaped.
Battery Calibration
Select Nikon battery chargers, which are used for newer rechargeable Lithium Ion batteries, are equipped with a battery calibration feature. Calibrate the battery as required to ensure the accuracy of the camera and charger battery level displays.
Beach Scene Mode
A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras, that lets you capture the brightness of beaches or sunlit expanses of water with the correct exposure in such a brightly lit situation.
Beach/Snow Scene Mode
A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras, designed for use when taking photos of snow in bright sunlight or brightly lit sandy beaches, ensuring the exposure is correct for the bright scene.
Beach/Snow Scene Mode
Bellows Attachment
A flexible, light-proof enclosure placed between the camera and the lens for close-up and macro photography. The desired reproduction ratio can be obtained by adjusting the bellows. Provides a higher reproduction ratio than extension rings.
Best Moment Capture Mode
This mode, available on select Nikon 1 digital cameras is ideal for fast, hard to capture subjects. By selecting this mode, you can choose to release the shutter as the scene plays back in slow motion (Slow View) or let the camera choose the best shot (Smart Photo Selector).
Best Moment Capture Mode
B-Frames
Bi-directional (B) frames are encoded based on an interpolation from I- and P-frames that come before and after them. B-frames require little space, but can take longer to decompress because they're reliant on frames that may be reliant on other frames. A Group of Pictures (GOP) can begin with a B-frame, but can't end with one.
Bird Watching Scene Mode
Bird Watching Mode is a Scene Mode available in select Nikon COOLPIX digital cameras such as the P600. This Scene Mode will assist you in taking photos of birds in the wild. When chosen, this mode allows you to select Single or Continuous.
Bird Watching Scene Mode
Bit
A unit of measurement indicating the information capacity of one binary digit.
Bitmap
A pixel-by-pixel description of an image, where each pixel is a separate element.
Blinking Highlights
A feature of Nikon digital SLR cameras, the blinking highlights display indicates areas of the photograph in which highlight detail is missing.
When using this feature, the camera detects that a human subject may have closed their eyes immediately after it recognizes the face. When this happens, the "Did someone blink?" screen will be displayed on the monitor to check the picture taken.
Blink Proof
Blossom Scene Mode
A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras that is designed for taking great photos of fields of flowers or other landscape that are full of blossoming flowers.
Blossom Scene Mode
Bluetooth
Bluetooth is a proprietary open wireless technology standard that is used for the exchange of data over short distances. Bluetooth can connect several devices together, whether fixed or mobile. Bluetooth is often used to connect wireless communication devices (cellphones) with other devices such as an earpiece/microphone for talking on a Bluetooth compatible cellular phone. The COOLPIX S800c digital camera offers Wi-Fi and Bluetooth connectivity.
Blur
A way of softening an image or part of an image.
Blu-ray Disk
Blu-ray (BD) is an optical disk storage medium superseding the DVD format. It can store six times more data than a DVD. The name refers to the blue laser used to read the disk. Blu-ray disks normally have a capacity of 25 gigabytes. Double sided Blu-ray disks have a capacity of 50 gigabytes.
Bokeh
The effect of a soft out of focus background that you get when shooting a subject, usually a portrait using a fast lens at the widest aperture such as f/2.8 or wider.
Bounce Light
Refers to a flash unit aimed at a reflecting surface, such as a wall or ceiling, to illuminate the subject with reflected light.
Bracketing
An exposure technique to assure an accurate, or preferable, exposure by shooting a sequence of images at different settings.
Broad Lighting
When photographing a portrait subject, broad lighting is the technique whereby you place the main light on the side of the face which is facing the camera and light source. It is often used to give a fuller look to the subject's face.
BSS (Best Shot Selector)
An exclusive Nikon technology, Best Shot Selector automatically selects the image with the sharpest focus from a series of up to ten consecutive images; only the sharpest shot is saved to the memory card.  

When Best Shot Selector is chosen, a series of images are stored in the camera's memory where they are evaluated by the camera's computer. The single image with the highest level of detail is then automatically transferred to the memory card.
Buffer
Memory in a camera or digital device that stores information before it is written to a storage source.
Buffering
The action of the digital camera preloading data into a reserved area of its memory. Certain Nikon cameras feature modes that utilize the buffering of image or video data specific to the chosen mode.

With regards to the Nikon 1 camera system, the camera fills the buffer with data before the shutter is fully depressed. When using the Smart Photo Selector mode, the camera stores this pre-recorded data and can access it if the data holds the best shots taken. When using the Motion Snapshot mode, the video captured before and after the still image is captured is stored in the camera's buffer for use in creating the final Motion Snapshot.
Bulb (B Setting)
A shutter speed setting that holds the shutter open for as long as the shutter release button remains pressed. Commonly used for long time-exposures. When using the Bulb setting, use a cable release to make sure you don't cause camera shake.
Bulb (B Setting)
Burning
Selectively darkening part of a photo using an image editing program or a mechanical technique in a traditional darkroom. Also the writing of material to a CD or DVD.
Burst (Continuous)
The digital SLRs' version of a film camera's motor drive sequence.
Butterfly Lighting
A lighting technique that is flattering when used with most portrait subjects. It is called Butterfly lighting because of the distinctive butterfly shaped shadow that is present under the subject's nose from the placement of the light(s). The main light is placed above and in the same direction the subject is facing and so produces even, soft light.
Byte
A unit of measurement of information storage equaling eight bits.
Cable Release
A wire and button device designed to allow photographers to trip the camera's shutter without touching the camera. Generally used with a tripod-mounted camera to insure even greater steadiness.
Camera Control Pro 2
Nikon software that provides simplified remote control of Nikon D-SLR cameras from a personal computer. Picture Control Utility: In certain Nikon digital SLRs such as the D3, D700, D300, D90, D3100 and D7000, customized image adjustment, including tone compensation curve data, can be saved to tailor the camera's behavior to the photographer's vision, improving efficiency when using multiple cameras at the same time. Software is compatible with Wi-Fi operation. Also compatible with Nikon's Image Authentication Function. For more information about Camera Control Pro 2, click here.
Candids
Photos taken of people acting in a natural, spontaneous, unposed way. Often used to describe a category of wedding photographs.
Candlelight Scene Mode
A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras that allows you to capture the ambient lighting of a candlelit scene.
Candlelight Scene Mode
Card Reader
A device used by photographers to read the image data on media cards. A card reader connects to computer via USB or FireWire and allows for the fast and easy downloading of image data from the card to the computer. It is more efficient than connecting the camera to the computer via USB to view or download images.
Catchlight
The reflection of a light source in a subject's eyes. Intentionally creating a catchlight by providing a small amount of illumination with a flash or reflector can make your subject look more vivid.
CCD
Charge coupled device, one of the two main types of image sensors used in digital cameras.
CC Filter
A color compensating filter. It enables you to make fine adjustments of color tone or color density in color photography.
CD-R
CD-Recordable. A compact disc that holds up to 700 megabytes of digital information. A CD-R disc can be written to only once. Ideal for long-time storage of data or photos.
CD-RW
CD-Rewritable. Similar in virtually all respects to a CD-R except a CD-RW disc can be written and erased many times. Not preferred for long-time storage of data or photos.
CEC
CEC stands for Consumer Electronics Control. CEC is a standard that allows for a camera that is connected to an HDTV to playback images/video with most HDTV remote controls.
Center-Weighted Fill-Flash
A fill-flash technique that uses the camera’s center-weighted meter for ambient light exposure measurement, and uses center-weighted flash metering.
Center-Weighted Metering
Meter sensitivity is biased toward the center of the viewfinder. Recommended when the subject is in the center of the picture.
Center-Weighted Metering
Child Scene Mode
A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras. The Child scene mode is used for photographing snapshots of children; skin tones will appear natural and soft while clothing and backgrounds will be vivid.
Child Scene Mode
Chromatic Aberration
A phenomenon in which light rays passing through a lens focus at different points, depending on their wavelength. Axial chromatic aberration is a variation in focal length; lateral chromatic aberration, a variation in magnification. Lateral chromatic aberration: Light wavelengths differ depending upon color. Differences in the length of the wavelengths result in changes in image magnification and become visible at image peripheries. Lateral Chromatic Aberration is the cause of color fringing. Lateral chromatic aberration is reduced to some degree by combining different lens elements with different refractive indexes, but optically speaking, it cannot be completely eliminated. In addition to red and its complimentary color, cyan, and blue and its complimentary color, yellow, some lenses may exhibit complex color fringing that combines these two primary types. It is greatly reduced by low-dispersion ED glass.
Cinematographer
A person who uses a motion picture camera to record the actual film footage shot during the making of a motion picture. Director of Photography is an equivalent title. On large budget "Hollywood" productions, cinematographers or director's of photography are responsible for the artistic and technical decisions related to capture of the film (or digital video, as many of today's motion pictures are being recorded using digital capture devices.)
Cinematography
The art and science of photographing a motion picture. The cinematographer is responsible for capturing the actual film footage using a motion picture camera which can be film or digital based.
CIPA Standard
The Camera & Imaging Product Association (CIPA) is an organization that conducts performance testing on photographic equipment and provides standard measurement results. Nikon Inc. uses the CIPA Standard when providing information on the shots per charge battery information for its cameras. Example: A Nikon D3S equipped with an AF-S NIKKOR 24-70mm f/2.8G ED lens, captured 4,200 images when measured at 23 degrees C/73.4 degrees F (plus or minus 2 degrees C/3.6 degrees F) under the following test conditions: lens cycled from infinity to minimum range and one photograph taken at default settings once every 30 seconds. Live view not used. Real life results will vary depending on factors such as temperature, use conditions and the number of times the battery is recharged.
Circle of Confusion
In photography, the circle of confusion (CoC) is used to determine the depth of field, the part of an image that is acceptably sharp. A standard value of CoC is often associated with each image format, but the most apprpriate value depends on visual acuity, viewing conditions and the amount of enlargement. Properly, this is the maximum permissible circle of confusion diameter limit, or the circle of confusion criterion, but is simply called circle of confusion.

Real lenses do not focus all rays perfectly, and so, even at best focus, a point is imaged as a spot rather than a point. The smallest such spot that a lens can produce is often referred to as the circle of least confusion.
Circular Polarizing Filter
Converts linear polarized light waves to circular polarized light waves. Required whenever polarizing is desired using autofocus cameras and cameras that have semi-silvered reflex mirrors.
Clear Color Display
This innovative technology improves screen visibility for a more vivid, clear image when taking and sharing pictures. Reflections are minimized while contrast and power savings are improved. (In select COOLPIX models).
Clear Color Display
Close-up
The general term for pictures taken at relatively close distances to achieve from 1/10 life-size (1:10) to life-size (1:1) images.
Close-up Attachment Lens
These lenses provide an easy way to increase magnification. Even when attached, you can use automatic exposure control and TTL metering. All lenses are treated with Nikon Integrated Coating to improve contrast and reduce flare. The higher the close-up lens number, the closer you can focus.
Close Up Scene Mode
Close up is a scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras used to photograph small objects and subjects at close range.
Close Up Scene Mode
Cloudy White Balance Setting
Cloudy is a white balance setting. When manually setting the white balance on your digital camera, and shooting under cloudy lighting conditions you use the cloudy setting to balance the available light so it is captured correctly by the camera.
Cloudy White Balance Setting
CMOS
Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor, one of the two main types of image sensors used in digital cameras. The Nikon COOLPIX CMOS image sensor with a backside illumination structure increases the amount of light that each pixel receives. The resulting improvement in noise and sensitivity reduction makes the select COOLPIX cameras more capable when shooting night scenes or in dark indoor situations. CMOS Technology provides Full HD 1080p movie recordings.
CMOS
CMYK
Cyan, magenta, yellow and black, the primary colors used in commercial color printing from which all other printing colors are derived.
Codec
A term related to digital video, a codec is a device or computer program that is capable of encoding and/or decoding a digital data stream or signal.
Color Cast
If the white balance of a scene does not match the lighting under which the scene is being photographed, a color cast can occur. For example, daylight is normally cooler than incandescent lighting, so if you photograph a subject lit by an incandescent light and the white balance of the camera is set for daylight, the image will look warmer because that type of lighting is warmer (orangeish) in color than daylight. If the camera was set for incandescent and you photograph a subject in daylight, the image would look cooler (blueish). When shooting RAW (NEF), you can readjust the white balance in Nikon Capture NX2 in post production.
Color Conversion Filter
A filter that alters the color temperature of light to make it suitable for the film in use. It enables you to use daylight-type film indoors or tungsten-type film outdoors.
Color Sketch Effect
A Special Effect available on certain Nikon D-SLR cameras. The camera detects and colors the outlines of subjects in the scene for a color sketch effect. When shooting D-movies in this mode, the video playback looks like a slide show made up of a series of still photos.
Color Sketch Effect
Color Temperature
A scale used for rating the color quality of light. Measured in degrees Kelvin (K). The temperature of daylight on a sunny day is expressed as 5500K; light from a tungsten lamp, 3200K to 3400K.
Coma
One of Seidel's five aberrations. The image of a point source of light is prevented from being brought into focus, but instead appears shaped as a comet or teardrop. Coma can be reduced by stopping down the lens.
Commander Mode
For cameras that offer this feature (check your manual to see if yours offers this feature) the D-SLR's built-in flash or external accessory Speedlight can be set to Commander mode, which makes that flash the master flash, controlling remote (optional) flash units in one or more groups.
CompactFlash
A type of storage card, available in a range of capacities, that's used in digital cameras to store images captured by the camera. The card can be erased when the images have been transferred or are no longer needed.
Composition
The arrangement of elements in a photograph.
Comprehensive Dust Reduction System
Special care should be taken when changing lenses in order to avoid the possibility of dirt or dust entering the camera. Once inside the camera, foreign matter may adhere to the low-pass filter and show up in photographs. To help prevent the appearance of these artifacts in photographs Nikon has created the Comprehensive Dust Reduction System. This system uses a series of high resonance frequencies to vibrate the optical low-pass filter. This dislodges dust on the front of the sensor and reduces dust spots appearing on images. This system combined with the existing Image Dust Off system in Capture NX 2 provides a full dust prevention system for photographers.

Sensor cleaning can be set to be performed manually when required by selecting the 'Clean now' setting, or automatically by selecting the 'Clean at startup/shutdown' setting. The 'Clean at startup/shutdown' setting has options for when the camera automatically performs an automatic sensor clean, either each time the camera is turned on, turned off or both.

Sensor cleaning takes approximately three seconds to complete. If the shutter release is depressed during a sensor clean, cleaning will be cancelled. This enables images to be taken even if a sensor clean has started.
Compression
Refers to reducing the quality of digital data in an effort to conserve storage space. For example, the JPEG file format is a compressed format. Certain Nikon cameras that offer RAW capture, using the Nikon Electronic File format (NEF) can
Continuous High Shooting
Continuous is one of the shooting options found in the Auto Mode of select Nikon digital cameras. Continuous allows you to take a series of pictures. Depending upon your camera model, the battery life and remaining memory in the buffer Continuous High lets you take more frames per second than Continuous Low; however if the flash is fired, only one picture will be taken.
Continuous High Shooting
Continuous Low Shooting
Continuous is one of the shooting options found in the Auto Mode of select Nikon digital cameras. Continuous allows you to take a series of pictures. Depending upon your camera model, the battery life and remaining memory in the buffer Continuous Low lets you take fewer frames per second than Continuous High; however if the flash is fired, only one picture will be taken.
Continuous Low Shooting
Continuous Servo AF
A mode of autofocus in which focus detection continues as long as the shutter release button is lightly pressed.
Continuous Servo AF
Continuous Shooting
Continuous is one of the shooting options found in the Auto Mode of Nikon digital cameras. Continuous allows you to take a series of pictures.
Continuous Shooting
Continuous Single Shooting
The camera will take one photograph each time the shutter button is released. Continuous Single is often the default setting.
Continuous Single Shooting
Contrast
A measure of the rate of an image's change of brightness. High contrast implies dark black and bright white content; medium contrast, a good spread from black to white; low contrast, a small spread of values from black to white.
Contrast-Control Filter
Used with black-and-white film to emphasize contrast in a picture. Yellow (Y), orange (O), and red (R) filters are available with contrast increasing in this order.
Conversion Factor
Used to describe changes in apparent magnification when a 35mm lens is used on a D-SLR with a sensor smaller than 24mm x 36mm.
COOLPIX
The trade name given to Point & Shoot digital cameras manufactured by Nikon.
COOLPIX Projector Camera
COOLPIX compact digital camera with a built-in projector.
COOLPIX Projector Camera
COOLSCAN
The trade name for film scanners manufactured by Nikon. Nikon COOLSCAN scanners have been discontinued as of December 2010.
CRC (Close Range Correction) System
The Close-Range Correction (CRC) system is one of Nikon's most important focusing innovations, for it provides superior picture quality at close focusing distances and increases the focusing range. With CRC, the lens elements are configured in a "floating element" design wherein each lens group moves independently to achieve focusing. This ensures superior lens performance even when shooting at close distances. The CRC system is used in fisheye, wide-angle, micro and selected medium telephoto NIKKOR lenses.
CRC (Close Range Correction) System
CRC (Close Range Correction) System
The Close-Range Correction (CRC) system is one of Nikon's most important focusing innovations, for it provides superior picture quality at close focusing distances and increases the focusing range. With CRC, the lens elements are configured in a "floating element" design wherein each lens group moves independently to achieve focusing. This ensures superior lens performance even when shooting at close distances. The CRC system is used in fisheye, wide-angle, micro and selected medium telephoto NIKKOR lenses.
CRC (Close Range Correction) System
Creative Mode
The Creative Mode is a shooting mode found on the mode dial of the Nikon 1 J2 camera. A variety of scene modes are available within the Creative Mode including: P/S/A/M, Night Landscape, Night Portrait, Backlighting (HDR), Easy Panorama, Soft (filter effect), Miniature Effect, and Selective Color. The Creative Mode is only for shooting still images, and will not work in movies mode.
Creative Mode
Creative Mode
The Creative mode is an effects mode available in select Nikon digital cameras such as the DL series. Effects are chosen while you’re shooting either still images or movies and can be selected from five different groups (Light, which is the default, Depth, Memory, Classic and Noir). You can further adjust the amount, contrast, hue, saturation, filter or peripheral illumination of each of the effects.
Creative Mode
Creative Palette
Creative Palette puts creativity at a photographer’s fingertips, by allowing you to modify the look of a photo via the touchscreen LCD or multi-selector before you shoot. This is a new feature in the Nikon 1 V3. The camera will automatically detect one of four scenes: portrait, close-up, landscape or other and will then display a ring showing four effects that can be applied to the scene. Brightness, saturation and white balance will change between the different effects as a finger is rotated around the ring or the multi-selector is rotated, so what you see is what you get.
Creative Palette
Cropping
Trimming unwanted parts of an image.
Curvature of Field
One of Seidel's five aberrations. Curvature of Field is a phenomenon in which straight lines are not rendered perfectly straight in the picture. Curvature of field can be improved but not eliminated by stopping down the lens.
CX Format
The CX format utilizes a Dual AF CMOS image sensor with the dimensions: 13.2mm x 8.8mm. The Nikon 1 digital cameras utilize the CX format imaging sensor.
Daylight-Type Film
A film balanced for proper color rendition when exposed in daylight.
DC (Defocus Control)
A lens which allows the photographer to control the degree of spherical aberration in the foreground or background by rotating the lens' DC ring. This will create a rounded out-of-focus blur that is ideal for portrait photography. With the DC control set at zero, a DC-Nikkor lens operates in the same way as a non-DC lens with the same focal length and maximum aperture. A DC-NIKKOR lens will be labeled as such on the lens barrel.
Definition
The clarity of detail within a photograph.
Delayed Response Remote
The Delayed Remote mode is used when shooting with select Nikon cameras and the ML-L3 remote control, to ensure no camera shake will occur. The Delayed Remote sets the camera's shutter to release between 2 - 10 seconds after the shutter button on the ML-L3 remote control is pressed.
Delayed Response Remote
Depth Gauge
Available in select cameras such as the Nikon 1 AW1. Calibrate the Depth Gauge on the surface before you enter the water, setting it to zero. Then, you can view your depth while you’re shooting or even include it in the EXIF data that is recorded along with the image.
Depth of Field
The zone of acceptable sharpness in front of and behind the subject on which the lens is focused. Depth of field varies according to focal length of the lens, chosen aperture and shooting distance.
Depth-of-Field Preview
A feature on advanced SLRs that closes the lens down to the actual taking aperture to enable you to see the picture's depth-of-field.
Depth of Field Scale
A scale on the lens barrel with the markings of f/stops and distances, which shows the distance range that is in focus for a chosen f/stop.
Depth of Focus
A measurement of the distance behind the lens wherein the film plane will remain sharply in focus. Depth of focus is sometimes referred to as lens-to-film tolerance.
Diaphragm
The mechanical device inside a lens that controls the aperture.
Diffuser
Any device or substance placed between the central light source and the subject that softens or spreads the light.
Digiscoping
Technique of taking film or digital still images or video by attaching a camera to a Fieldscope or Spotting Scope. In addition to camera equipment, Nikon also manufactures Fieldscopes, and the array of attachments and adapters necessary to marry our Fieldscopes to Nikon COOLPIX and Nikon D-SLRs. Digiscoping lets you capture photographs without the use of traditional photographic lenses. Bird watchers and naturalists are some of the people who capture close-up images of wildlife by digiscoping.
Digital
Any device or system in which information is stored or manipulated by on/off impulses.
Digital Image
An image that is represented by discrete numerical values organized in a two-dimensional array. The conversion of images into a digital form is known as digital imaging.
Digital Photography
Photography that utilizes a digital camera to produce the image.
Digital Zoom
The digital zoom uses software interpolation to "zoom" into the image further than the actual optical zoom lens in the camera allows. Because digital zooms use interpolation instead of an actual zoom lens, the resulting image will be of lower quality.
Digital Zoom
Digitization
Conversion of analog information into digital format so that it can be used by a computer.
Digitutor
Step by step tutorials on the use of current Nikon D-SLR cameras, NIKKOR lenses and Speedlights.
Diopter
A measure of lens power equal to the reciprocal of the focal length. Eyeglass prescriptions are generally indicated in diopters. For cameras, the diopter is used as the measure of the dioptric power for the image in the viewfinder.
Dioptric Power
Apparent image distance through optics such as viewfinders. Rated in diopters. A plus sign is used for positive lenses, a minus sign for negative lenses.
Disc
The term used to describe optical storage media (compact disc).
Disk
The term used to describe magnetic storage media (floppy disk).
Dispersion
A phenomenon in which white light rays deviate by different wavelength amounts resulting in a spectrum. The rainbow created by a prism is the result of dispersion.
Distortion
There are three types of distortion that could affect the shape of the image: Barrel: image deformation causes a rectangle to swell in the center, looking like a barrel (the corners of the rectangle are greater than 90 degrees); Pincushion: image deformation causes the sides of a rectangle to move inward, forming a pincushion or star shape (the corners of the rectangle are less than 90 degrees); or Combinations: the two types can also be combined.

Distortion cannot be corrected by stopping down the lens. It can be improved by the optical combination of positive and negative lens elements.
Distortion Control
Available in select COOLPIX models, Distortion Control provides optimum image quality for architectural and landscape photographs. The feature ensures precise subject reproduction and avoids the image distortion that occurs at wide-angle zoom settings or at the peripheries of an image.

D-Lighting
A function built into several Nikon D-SLRS and into Nikon's Capture NX2 imaging program that allows you to brighten subjects that have been underexposed or enhance the contrast of an overexposed subject.
D-Movie Mode
An innovative feature first introduced by Nikon, DSLRs that can capture HD movies, is now available in the new D7000, D3100, in 1080p, and also available in the D3S, D300S, D5000 and D90 in 720p. Capture sound with the on-board microphone or through the external mic input on select models for vocal memories. The dramatic impact of your movie making is leveraged by the legendary line of NIKKOR lenses, from ultra-wide-angle and fisheye to super-telephoto.

The camera's Live View capability makes D-Movies possible. Live View is essentially a video image, played back to the LCD monitor in near real-time for viewing. D-Movie mode records that image to the camera's memory card.

D-Movies are enhanced by the fact that they are made using NIKKOR lenses, which provide an incredible choice of focal lengths as well as legendary optical quality. They also benefit from an image sensor much larger than a typical camcorder, resulting in higher image quality and exceptional high ISO performance during low-light shooting.
Dodging
Selectively lightening part of a photo using an image editing program or a mechanical technique in a traditional darkroom.
Double Exposure
Two exposures on the same frame. With film cameras, the film is not wound forward after the first exposure. In digital photography, a double exposure is most commonly made by combining two images using an image editing program.
Download
A file or other information transferred from a camera, media card, CD, DVD, hard drive or the Internet to a computer or from one piece of computer equipment to another.
Downloading
Moving computer data from one location to another. Though the term is normally used to describe the transfer of data from the Internet, it is also used to describe the transfer of photos from a camera's memory card to a computer.
DPI
Dots per inch. A measurement of the resolution of a digital photo or digital device, including digital cameras and printers. The higher the number, the greater the resolution.
DPOF
DPOF is the abbreviation for Digital Print Order Format. DPOF can be found on all Nikon COOLPIX cameras. It allows users to choose which images they wish to print, from the camera. The camera saves this information in special files on the media card for use at a later time when the images are downloaded to a computer, printer or photo kiosk.
Draw Scene Mode
A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras. When using a COOLPIX digital camera with a touchscreen display, you can draw pictures or write memos on the display and save them as photos using the Draw scene mode.
Draw Scene Mode
DSCN
DSCN is an identifier that will begin the alpha/numeric string in the file name of an original still image or movie taken with a Nikon digital camera. After the DSCN, a file number will be automatically assigned in ascending order.
D-SLR
A digital single-lens reflex camera.
D-TTL
The camera measures the amount of light reflected from the subject through the lens to automatically control flash output level and give correct exposure.
D-Type NIKKOR Lens
A NIKKOR lens that sends distance information to the microcomputer of a dedicated Nikon camera. D-type lenses can be distinguished by a model name in which the letter D follows the maximum f/number.
Dual Shutter System
Certain Nikon digital cameras such as the Nikon 1 V1 digital camera utilize a dual shutter system, allowing you to choose from Mechanic, Electronic or Electronic (HI) shutters depending upon your shooting situation. The flash X sync speed of the Nikon 1 V1 digital camera when using the Mechanical Shutter is 1/250 of a second or slower. The Mechanical shutter offers a shutter speed range of 1/4,000 of a second–30 seconds in 1/3 EV steps, Bulb and Time (with optional ML-L3 remote). The Electronic Shutter is silent and is ideal for use where camera sounds are undesirable. The flash X sync speed of the Nikon 1 V1 digital camera when using the Electronic Shutter is 1/60 of a second or slower. The Electronic shutter offers a shutter speed range of 1/16,000 of a second – 30 seconds in 1/3 EV steps, Bulb and Time (with optional ML-L3 remote). The Electronic (HI) Shutter's default setting captures images at a rate of 10 fps. It does support 30 and 60 fps frame rates. Face detection is disabled when using the Electronic (HI) Shutter.
Dusk/Dawn Scene Mode
A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras. This scene mode preserves the colors seen in the weak natural light that is visible before sunrise or after sunset. It is suggested a tripod be used when shooting in this scene mode.
Dusk/Dawn Scene Mode
DVD
Digital Video Disc. A type of CD-ROM with greater data storage capacity and access rate. Most commonly used for movies and video data, its high capacity—4.7 gigabytes—makes it ideal for storage and backup of digital files and photographs.
DX-Coded Film
Film that features embedded information that allows the camera to automatically set the film's speed.
DX Format
Refers to Nikon cameras that feature a 1.5 magnification factor imaging sensor. Nikon digital SLRs have either an FX or a DX sensor. The FX sensor, measuring 23.9 x 36mm, is roughly equivalent to the size of the 35mm film frame. The DX sensor is smaller, measuring 15.8 x 23.6mm. The DX sensor makes possible the production of lighter, smaller cameras, but because it covers a smaller portion of the image projected by the lens, a 1.5x crop factor (so called because the smaller sensor crops the image compared to an image from a 35mm film frame) is introduced. This means, for example, a 24mm lens on a DX sensor camera will provide an approximate 36mm view.
DX Format
Dynamic Area AF
Dynamic Area AF is one of three Nikon AF Area Modes. With Dynamic Area AF, you can select from several focusing options: 9-, 21- or all 51-point AF. Select a Single AF point and the areas surrounding it serve as backup—a significant advantage when shooting moving subjects. Select the 9-point option when you want to focus on erratically moving subjects with greater accuracy. When dealing with insufficient contrast for fast focus detection, choosing 21 or 51 points makes detection easier. The 51-point option also allows for 3D Focus Tracking, which uses color information from the RGB metering sensor to automatically follow moving subjects across the AF points.
Dynamic Area AF
Dynamic Fine Zoom
Dynamic Fine Zoom is a new feature available on select Nikon COOLPIX digital cameras that extends the zoom range electronically 2x with minimal image degradation.
Dynamic Fine Zoom
Dynamic Range
Photographers use "dynamic range" for the luminance range of a scene being photographed, or the limits of luminance range that a given digital camera or film can capture. The dynamic range of sensors used in digital photography is many times less than that of the human eye and generally not as wide as that of chemical photographic media
Easy Panorama Scene Mode
Easy Panorama is a scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras that makes it very easy to take a 180 degree or 360 degree panorama simply by panning the camera during exposure.
Easy Panorama Scene Mode
E-Compass
The E-Compass is a general use compass feature that allows you to use the GPS of select cameras such as the COOLPIX AW100, AW110 and AW120 as a compass, and it can assist you in finding your bearings. When the Compass display is set to ON, it is displayed on the shooting screen. Although the E-Compass can be utilized for general use, it should not be the only GPS device that you rely on when hiking in the wilderness, boating, driving, flying, mountain climbing or any other specialized application that requires stringent positioning.
ED (Extra-Low Dispersion) Glass
An optical glass developed by Nikon that is used with normal optical glass in telephoto lenses to obtain optimum correction of chromatic aberrations.
ED (Extra-Low Dispersion) Glass
Effective Pixels
The actual numbers of pixels the camera's sensor uses to make the image. The number of effective pixels is often slightly smaller than the total number of pixels, as some pixels are not used in the actual making of the image.
Effects Mode

Certain model Nikon D-SLRs such as the D5100 feature an Effects Mode that can be used when recording still images or D-movies. They can be found by selecting Effects on the cameras mode dial, and scrolling through the various effects via the command dial. Some of the special Effects are: Night Vision, Color Sketch, Miniature Effect, Selective Color, Silhouette, High Key, and Low Key.

Electromagnetic Diaphragm Mechanism
An electromagnetic diaphragm mechanism in the lens barrel provides highly accurate electronic diaphragm or aperture blade control when using auto exposure during continuous shooting. With conventional D/G type lenses, the diaphragm blades are operated by mechanical linkage levers.
Electromagnetic Diaphragm Mechanism
Electronic VR
EPS
Encapsulated PostScript. A graphic file format that allows the exchange of PostScript graphic files between application programs.
EV
Exposure Value. A number that represents available combinations of shutter speed and aperture offering the same exposure effect when scene brightness remains the same.
Exabyte
An exabyte is a unit of information equal to 1,024 petabytes or approximately 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes.
Exchange Messages
Select COOLPIX digital cameras such as the S31 offer a "Have fun with pictures" mode in the playback menu that allows you to perform a range of creative options. One such option is Exchange Messages, which allows you to add voice messages to your images. You can even add responses to initial voice messages.
Exchange Messages
EXIF
Exchangeable image file. The file format used by most digital cameras. A camera set to record a JPEG is actually recording an EXIF file that uses JPEG compression to compress photo data within the file.
Existing Light
Light that exists naturally at the scene. Also known as available light, it's often taken to mean only daylight, but many photographers consider it any light or light source that happens to be at the scene.
EXPEED 4
EXPEED 4 is the latest iteration of Nikon's proprietary image processing system. EXPEED 4 is engineered to maximize performance speed, contributing to quicker response time, faster memory card access and data transfers. EXPEED 4 extends and assures breathtakingly rich image fidelity and reduces noise, even at high ISO’s. EXPEED 4 has evolved with the development of new Nikon technologies as well as the improvement of existing technologies. Nikon will continue to improve upon its EXPEED image processing systems to provide photographers with maximum camera performance and the highest quality images possible.
EXPEED 4
EXPEED 5
EXPEED 5 is the latest iteration of Nikon's proprietary image processing system. EXPEED 5 is engineered to maximize performance speed, contributing to quicker response time, faster memory card access and data transfers. EXPEED 5 extends and assures breathtakingly rich image fidelity and reduces noise, even at high ISOs. EXPEED 5 has evolved with the development of new Nikon technologies as well as the improvement of existing technologies. Nikon will continue to improve upon its EXPEED image processing systems to provide photographers with maximum camera performance and the highest quality images possible.
EXPEED 5
EXPEED C2
Engineered to deliver optimal performance on each COOLPIX model, the latest evolution of Nikon's renowned digital image processing engine, EXPEED C2 helps ensure beautiful photographs of every scene you shoot. EXPEED C2 continues to expand the possibilities of photography with improved levels of high image quality, fine detail and processing speed.
Export
The process of transferring data from one computer, file format, program or device to another.
Exposure
The total amount of light falling on the film or image sensor. Most often measured in the amount of time the light is allowed to reach the sensor, as in "a one-second exposure."
Exposure Compensation
Settings used to modify the shutter speed and/or lens aperture recommended by the camera's light meter. Often used to produce special creative effects or to meet the scene requirements.
Exposure Compensation
Exposure Indicator
A display showing the amount by which a photograph recorded at the current aperture and shutter speed will deviate from the optimal exposure selected by the camera.
Exposure Meter
A device that measures light to determine the combination of shutter speed and f/stop needed to make an optimum exposure.
Extension Ring
Also known as Extension Tubes. An Extension Ring is a device placed between the lens and camera body to extend the lens-to-film (or imaging sensor) distance for closer focusing. Available in various sizes, extension rings can be used singly or in combination to vary the reproduction ratio. Nikon cameras using these support them in Manual focus mode only and they are considered non-CPU lens attachments. 
External Flash
A flash unit that operates off the camera. It can be connected to the camera by a cable or fired wirelessly.
Eye-Fi™
Eye-Fi™ is a trademarked brand of wireless media card, compatible with specific models of Nikon digital cameras.
Eyepiece Correction Lens
Attaches to the viewfinder eyepiece for eyesight adjustment. Some cameras have this adjustment built-in.
Eyepiece Magnifier
Attaches to the camera's viewfinder eyepiece to magnify the image for easier manual focusing. Especially useful for manual focusing on subjects with fine detail.
Eyepiece Shutter
A built-in device that prevents light from entering the camera's viewfinder eyepiece and adversely affecting the automatic exposure meter reading. Useful for unattended shooting and self-timer-operation.
Eyepoint
The farthest point on the optical axis where the entire image inside the viewfinder can be seen.
Face-Priority AF
Available in all COOLPIX models, Face-Priority AF automatically detects a person’s face at typical portrait-taking distances, then activates the camera's autofocus to focus upon the face area.
Face-Priority AF
Fast Glass
Slang term, often used by professional photographers, for a fast lens with large maximum apertures.
Fast Lens
A lens with a large maximum aperture, usually in the range of f/2.8 or larger. Because such a lens will allow more light to reach the film or image sensor, it will allow the use of faster shutter speeds.
Fast Motion Movie Option
A movie option that is available in select cameras such as the Nikon 1 V3. Record silent fast-motion footage that plays back at about four times normal speed. Playback is one quarter the recording time.
Fast Motion Movie Option
Feature (F) Button
A button on select Nikon digital cameras that gives you acces to select features. In the Nikon 1 camera system, the Feature button gives you access to certain features in the SPS, Motion Snapshot or Playback modes.
File
A computer document; also, a collection of information, such as data, images or text that can be saved on a disk or a hard drive.
File Format
A selected program type or data file such as JPEG, NEF, RAW or TIFF.
Fill-Flash
A technique that uses flash illumination as a supplement to ambient light. Useful when photographing subjects that are backlit with very high-contrast lighting or in shadow.
Filter
A plastic or glass lens that fits in front of the camera lens and is used to manipulate or affect the final image.
Filter Adapter Ring
Placed between a filter and the lens when attachment size differs.
FireWire
A protocol for transferring data to and from digital devices at high speed, often up to 800 megabytes per second.
Fireworks Scene Mode
A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras. This scene mode uses slow shutter speeds to capture the exploding bursts of fireworks. It is suggested a tripod be used when shooting in this scene mode.
Fireworks Scene Mode
Firmware
Firmware is a read only set of instructions that is embedded in a hardware device to either add or improve function. Sometimes there are two parts to a Nikon firmware update labeled A or B. Some updates will perform either A or B, and some will perform A and B, only one at a time. Some others still will perform both A and B at the same  time. Please read the instructions carefully as firmware updates are permanent and cannot be 'undone' outside of the service department. Newer firmware versions will overwrite older versions and will also include all previous update changes.
Firmware Update Capability
A first for Nikon flash units, the latest firmware for specific Nikon Speedlights can be downloaded from Nikon's website to a memory card while the Speedlight is mounted on certain Nikon D-SLRs.
Fisheye Lens
A lens that has a picture angle of approximately 180 degrees or more.
Fisheye Special Effect
A Special Effect that is available on select Nikon digital cameras, which produces an image that looks as if it was taken with a fisheye lens.
Fisheye Special Effect
Fixed Bit Rate
A type of lossy media compression that uses the same data per second throughout the entire audio/video file. The file size will be smaller than one with a variable bit rate. Because of the smaller size obtainable with a fixed bit rate, it is better for uses of streaming content over the internet.
Fixed Focus
Refers to a lens in which the focus is fixed at the time of manufacture and is not adjustable. These lenses are most often used in single-use cameras. They are also found in phone cameras and webcams.
Flare
The soft effect visible in a picture resulting from stray light passing through the lens that is not focused to form the primary image. Flare can be controlled by using optical coating, light baffles, low reflection surfaces or a lens hood.
Flash
An electronic unit that provides a relatively brief burst of light.
Flash Card
A type of camera memory card that can retain data after the system has been turned off. Also known as a flash memory card or media card.
Flash Color Information Communications
Nikon Speedlights provide improved color accuracy in flash photography thanks to flash color information communication. In Auto White Balance mode, the master Speedlight—the unit attached to the Nikon D-SLR, transmits information to the camera about the color temperature of the light that it is emitting. The information is used by the camera to determine a white balance setting that best matches the color temperature of the flash to the color temperature of the scene's ambient light, thus allowing the camera to achieve optimum white balance for the scene.
Flash Duration
Refers to the very short amount of time it usually takes for a flash to fire. Automatic flash control varies the brightness by varying the duration of the flash. Flash duration for an auto flash is typically 1/1000 to 1/20,000 second.
Flash Exposure Bracketing
A feature that enables you to automatically bracket exposures at varied flash outputs without changing the shutter speed and/or aperture.
Flash Exposure Compensation
This feature allows you to add exposure compensation to the amount of flash output that a built-in pop-up Speedlight or accessory Speedlight can output. Flash Exposure Compensation can be + (plus) or - (minus) in increments of 1/3 EV.
Flash Exposure Compensation
Flash OFF
When a Nikon digital camera with a built-in flash is set to OFF, the flash will not fire, even if the lighting is poor, or the subject backlit.
Flash OFF
Flash Output Level Compensation
A control used to adjust an automatic TTL flash unit’s operation, enabling an increase or decrease of flash output to lighten or darken the flash effect.
Flash Shooting Distance Range
The distance over which a flash can effectively provide light.
Flash Sync Speed
The speed at which a flash synchronizes with the opening of the shutter.
Flash Value (FV) Lock
A function of the Nikon Creative Lighting System, Flash Value (FV) lock maintains the same flash exposure for your main subject when you're shooting a sequence of photos. This allows you to zoom in on your subject, change the composition or adjust the aperture, all without altering the intended exposure. Once FV Lock is set on your Nikon Speedlight, the flash value remains at the locked in setting until the FV Lock is pressed a second time, the camera's light meter times out or the camera is turned off.
Flash White Balance Setting
Flash is a white balance setting. When manually setting the white balance on your digital camera, and taking pictures using flash lighting, you use the flash setting to color balance the available light and flash so it is captured correctly by the camera.
Flash White Balance Setting
Flat
A term often used to indicate an image that's too low in contrast; a "flat" image.
Flat Lighting
Lighting source or method that produces a low contrast image or depicts a subject with little dimensionality.
Flexible Program
Flicker Reduction
When shooting in the movie mode, the Flicker Reduction option, offered on select Nikon cameras, allows you to compensate for the flicker that may be seen on the display or final movies when shooting under Florescent, Mercury Vapor or Sodium lamps; or if the camera is panned horizontally; or an object moves at high speed through the frame.
Flood Lamp
A type of photo reflector lamp that can illuminate a rather wide area.
Floppy Disk
A flexible, thin, 3.5-inch square plastic disk used to store data or images. Not widely used anymore as their storage capacity is limited.
Flourescent White Balance Setting
Flourescent is a white balance setting. When manually setting the white balance on your digital camera, and shooting under flourescenet lighting you use the flourescent setting to color color balance the light so it is captured correctly by the camera.
Flourescent White Balance Setting
Fluorescent

The illumination produced from a gas-discharge lamp or tube is called fluorescent light. Electricity to the lamp stimulates the mercury vapor within the lamp creating the emission of electromagnetic radiation which produces the fluorescence. This type of lighting is typically found in office buildings, warehouses and industrial settings. The light produced is “green” or a cooler-than-daylight light balance. Setting a camera’s white balance to Fluorescent will correct for the green cast.

In terms of color temperature, fluorescent light generally falls between 4000 and 5000 degrees Kelvin.

Color Temperature

Light Source

1000-2000 K

      Candlelight

2500-3500 K

      Tungsten Bulb (household variety)

3000-4000 K

      Sunrise/Sunset (clear sky)

4000-5000 K

      Fluorescent Lamps

5000-5500 K

      Electronic Flash

5000-6500 K

      Daylight with Clear Sky (sun overhead)

6500-8000 K

      Moderately Overcast Sky

9000-10000 K

      Shade or Heavily Overcast Sky

Fluorescent
Fluorite Lens Element
Fluorite (FL), a lightweight mono-crystal optical material, has excellent optical properties while reducing overall lens weight to improve balance and handling, especially useful in longer focal length lenses.
Fluorite Lens Element
F Mount
The F Mount is the designation given to the Nikon single lens reflex interchangeable lens mounting system. Used on Nikon SLRs/D-SLRs and NIKKOR lenses from the introduction of the Nikon F in 1959 to current models, the bayonet-type F-Mount is the communication link between Nikon SLRs and NIKKOR lenses.

Noted for its rugged construction and outstanding reliability, the F-Mount is distinctive also for its degree of compatibility with NIKKOR lenses and a design that can accommodate future system advances. Nikon has maintained the basic structure of the mount for the 50 years of its use, and currently some 400 different NIKKOR lenses are compatible with the system.

One of the biggest advantages of the Nikon F-Mount is that you're able to choose from a large selection of lenses including: AF NIKKOR and AF-S (Silent Wave Motor) and PC-E perspective-control NIKKOR lenses.

By adapting and extending the capability of the F-Mount and NIKKOR lenses, Nikon has incorporated technologies like autofocus, advanced metering, distance information technology, electronic aperture control in G-Type NIKKOR, VR (Vibration Reduction) image stabilization and Silvent Wave Motor (AF-S) technology, thus maintaining a significant degree of compatibility and demonstrating an ongoing commitment to photographers.
f/number or f/stop
The numerical expression of the relative aperture of a lens. Each f/number is 1.4 times larger than the preceding one, and each number indicates a halving or doubling of the amount of light allowed to pass through the lens.
Focal Length
The distance from the principal point to the focal point.
Focal Length Multiplier
For a D-SLR that uses an imaging sensor smaller than full frame (35mm film frame), the ratio of the diagonal of the camera's imaging sensor in comparison to the diagonal of a 35mm frame is the crop factor. This ratio is commonly referred to as a focal length multiplier (FLM), since multiplying a lens focal length by the crop factor or FLM gives the focal length of a lens that would yield the same field of view if used on the reference format.
Focal Plane
The precise position (plane) within the camera body, behind the shutter curtain, at which the light gathering surface of the image sensor is fixed. In a film SLR, this is the same plane across which the film would be positioned for each exposure. The focal plane mark is a mark on the exterior of the camera body noting where the focal plane is located inside.
Focal Plane
Focal Point
A point on the optical axis where light rays converge to form a sharp image of an object.
Focusing Screen
An element between the mirror and pentaprism or pentamirror in a single-lens-reflex camera. The mirror reflects the image from the lens upward onto the screen. The areas of the image that are in focus are sharply defined on the screen, while the areas that are out of focus appear blurred. The photographer views the image passing through the screen in the viewfinder window. Some Nikon SLRs and D-SLRs have interchangeable focusing screens.
Focus Mode
A method of operation for an autofocus system. Basic focus modes include single servo AF, continuous servo AF and manual focus.
Focus-Priority AF
An autofocus mode in which the shutter cannot be released until the subject is in focus.
Focus Range
The range within which a lens can focus on a selected subject. Often used to indicate the capability of a macro or micro lens.
Focus Tracking
A focusing system that analyzes a moving subject’s speed and anticipates the position of the subject at the exact moment of exposure. Enables you to take in-focus pictures of moving subjects.
Food Scene Mode
A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras. This scene mode automatically sets the Macro mode, allows for hue adjustments and user movement of the focus area.
Food Scene Mode
Foreground
The area in a scene that is closer to the photographer than the main subject.
Formatting
Preparing a memory card for use. It is recommended that before each shooting session, digital camera users format their memory card, in the camera, which completely wipes the data that had been on the card. It is recommended that this be done, instead of simply deleting all files.
FP High-Speed Sync
A feature of flash units and SLR cameras that enables flash pictures to be taken at shutter speeds higher than the camera's normally synchronized speeds.
FPS
Frames per second. Refers to the rate at which film is exposed when a camera's motor drive is engaged; in digital photography, the rate at which image frames are exposed.
Frame
A single image; also, the scene viewed through the camera's finder.
Framing Priority
A photographic technique that is selectable when shooting in the Smart Photo Selector mode of the Nikon 1 system cameras. Framing Priority is accessed via the F (Feature) button. It is ideal for use when photographing a stationary subject. The focus locks when the shutter is pressed half way.
Freezeproof
Freezeproof cameras are designed to be used in frigid temperatures. The Nikon COOLPIX AW100 digital camera is freezeproof, able to be used in the frigid cold down to 14°F and in cold water, down to 32°F.
Front-Curtain Sync
A technique in which the flash fires an instant after the first (front) curtain of a focal plane shutter has completed its travel across the film plane. See also Rear-Curtain Sync.
Front Lighting
Lighting that illuminates the subject from the position of the camera. Because illumination falls evenly on the subject, a front-lit subject may look flat and less dimensional.
Full-Aperture Metering
A metering method in which light is measured with the lens at maximum aperture.
Full-time Servo
Full-time-servo AF or AF-F is used for moving subjects. When set to AF-F, the camera will focus continuously as long as the shutter release button is pressed. The focus locks when the shutter button is pressed halfway. AF-F is one of the focus modes that are availalble on select cameras when in Live View.
FX-Format
Refers to Nikon cameras that feature a 35mm film-frame size sensor. Nikon digital SLRs have either an FX or a DX sensor. The FX sensor, measuring 23.9 x 36mm, is roughly equivalent to the size of the 35mm film frame. The DX sensor is smaller, measuring 15.8 x 23.6mm. The FX sensor, with more "light gathering" area, offers higher sensitivity and, generally, lower noise. There is, of course, no crop factor present with the FX sensor.
Gamma
Gamma is a mathematical term which is used to describes a skew in the middle tones of an image. Gamma values do not affect the overall density range (in other words the brightest and darkest points of the color space) but will dramatically affect the overall appearance: A low gamma value will produce a saturated, somber image, whereas a higher value will result in a de-saturated, washed-out result. All imaging devices such as monitors, digital cameras and scanners make use of some sort of gamma value as the conversion between digital and analog. The value of gamma can be specified for a color space so that the correct tonality can be reproduced.
Gelatin Filter
A color filter made of gelatin. Since gelatin can be dyed with a wide range of materials, filters can be made with a variety of colors for various effects. Certain lenses, such as the NIKKOR 10.5mm Fisheye lens, accept gelatin filters. Nikon does not make gel (gelatin) filters. Most Gel filters are made by Kodak (under the "Wratten" brand name) but other manufacturers also supply gel filters. These filters can be purchased from specialty camera stores and they usually come in 3" x 3" or 4" x 4" sheets. These sheets should be custom-cut by the user for the desired application. Many different types are available for color correction and neutral density effects.
Geotagging
Geotagging is the practice of recording and sharing GPS coordinates captured at the time that photos or videos are shot. Some photographers like to keep detailed records of exactly where they have traveled and photographed; while other photographers like to share the GPS coordinates with others so they too can visit these locations.
Ghost Image or Ghosting
A double image that results from using flash in relatively bright light at a low shutter speed. The two images, one from the ambient light and a second from the flash, do not perfectly coincide.
GIF
Graphics image format. This is a raster-oriented graphic file format that allows the exchange of image files across multiple platforms.
Gigabyte
A gigabyte (gb) is a unit of information equal to 1,024 megabytes or approximately 1,000,000,000 bytes.
Glamour Retouch
Glamour Retouch gives you the ability to enhance portrait photographs in various ways—depending upon the model of camera you are using—such as by Skin Softening, Larger or Big Eyes, Whiten Eyes, Whiten Teeth, Redden Cheeks, Hide Eyebags, Brighten Faces and Small Face. It is available in select Nikon digital cameras. New copies of the photo are stored as separate files.
Glamour Retouch
Glamour Retouch—Big Eyes
Select COOLPIX digital cameras offer a range of enhancements that can be made in Glamour Retouch. One such enhancement is Big Eyes, which makes the eyes of a portrait subject look bigger than they are.
Glamour Retouch—Big Eyes
Glamour Retouch: Brighten Face: Powder
Select COOLPIX digital cameras offer a range of enhancements that can be made in Glamour Retouch. One such enhancement is powder, which makes your portrait subject's skin tone brighter.
Glamour Retouch: Brighten Face: Powder
Glamour Retouch—Brighten Faces
Select COOLPIX digital cameras offer a range of enhancements that can be made in Glamour Retouch. One such enhancement is Brighten Faces, which brightens the skin tone on a portrait subject's face.
Glamour Retouch—Brighten Faces
Glamour Retouch: Eye Shadow
Select COOLPIX digital cameras offer a range of enhancements that can be made in Glamour Retouch. One such enhancement is eye shadow, which allows you to select one of four colors—purple, pink, brown and green—to enhance your portrait subject.
Glamour Retouch: Eye Shadow
Glamour Retouch: Glare Reduction
Select COOLPIX digital cameras offer a range of enhancements that can be made in Glamour Retouch. One such enhancement is glare reduction, which reduces glare visible on a portrait subject's face.
Glamour Retouch: Glare Reduction
Glamour Retouch—Hide Eyebags
Select COOLPIX digital cameras offer a range of adjustments that can be made in Glamour Retouch. One such enhancement is Hide Eyebags, which hides the effect of dark bags under a portrait subject's eyes.
Glamour Retouch—Hide Eyebags
Glamour Retouch: Lipstick
Select COOLPIX digital cameras offer a range of enhancements that can be made in Glamour Retouch. One such enhancement is lipstick, which allows you to select one of four colors—red, pink, beige and orange—to enhance your portrait subject.
Glamour Retouch: Lipstick
Glamour Retouch: Mascara
Select COOLPIX digital cameras offer a range of enhancements that can be made in Glamour Retouch. One such enhancement is mascara, which allows you to choose one of five selectable types—natural, volume, long, upper and bottom (natural), and upper and bottom (volume)—to enhance your portrait subject.
Glamour Retouch: Mascara
Glamour Retouch—Redden Cheeks
Select COOLPIX digital cameras offer a range of enhancements that can be made in Glamour Retouch. One such enhancement is Redden Cheeks, which adds color to the cheeks of a portrait subject.
Glamour Retouch—Redden Cheeks
Glamour Retouch—Small Face
Select COOLPIX digital cameras offer a range of enhancements that can be made in Glamour Retouch. One such enhancement is small face.
Glamour Retouch—Small Face
Glamour Retouch—Whiten Eyes
Select COOLPIX digital cameras offer a range of enhancements that can be made in Glamour Retouch. One such enhancement is Whiten Eyes, which whitens the white part of the human eye in portrait photographs.
Glamour Retouch—Whiten Eyes
Glamour Retouch—Whiten Teeth
Select COOLPIX digital cameras offer a range of enhancements that can be made in Glamour Retouch. One such enhancement is Whiten Teeth, which makes the teeth whiter on a portrait subject.
Glamour Retouch—Whiten Teeth
GN Mode on Nikon Speedlights
With distance-priority manual flash operation the guide number is automatically determined by the Speedlight according to the distance value and aperture set.
GPS
Global Positioning System, in which the receiver calculates its position on the earth by timing signals received from GPS satellites.
GPS
Graininess
A term particular to film, it refers to the appearance of grain (the structure of a film's coating or emulsion) in a print, transparency or negative.
Grayscale
A term used to describe an image that contains multiple shades of gray, as well as black and white. Often used in imaging programs as a synonym for black-and-white.
Group Area AF
With Group-area AF, the camera focuses using a group of five focus points (the center one is not shown when the Group-area AF focus points are illuminated) selected by the user. This reduces the risk of the camera focusing on the background instead of on the main subject. Choose this mode for subjects that are difficult to photograph using a single focus point. If faces are detected in AF-S focus mode, the camera will give priority to portrait subjects; or when no faces are present, focuses on the closest subject to the camera.
Group Area AF
Groups of Pictures
MPEG formats use three types of compressed frames, organized in a group of pictures, or GOP, to achieve interframe compression. GOPs are defined by three factors: their pattern of I-, P-, and B-frames, their length, and whether the GOP is “open” or “closed.”
G-Type NIKKOR Lens
G-type NIKKOR lenses have no aperture control ring and are intended for use on Nikon D-SLRs that allow the lens aperture to be adjusted via the camera's command dial. In addition, like D-type NIKKORS, G-type optics relay subject-to-camera distance information to Nikon digital SLRs. The information is used to help determine ambient and flash exposure. A G-type lens will have the abbreviation G labeled on the lens barrel.
Guide Mode
Guide Mode provides instant in-camera guidance that shows you step-by-step how to change camera settings to achieve the picture you want. To use you select a Guide Mode setting that matches the scene you are shooting, and let it assist you, so you learn while obtaining the desired results.
Guide Number
Indicates the power of a flash in relation to ISO film speed.
H.264
H.264 is a standard for video compression. It is also known as MPEG-4 AVC.
Hair Light
A light placed above and to the side of a portrait subject, to illuminate the person's hair/head. It is a form of accent lighting.
Halation
A phenomenon that arises when light scattered within the film emulsion continues through the film base and is reflected.
Halftone
A reproduction of an image through a special screen. The screen is made up of a variety of different sized dots to simulate shades of gray in a photograph.
Halogen
An incandescent light bulb that contains a tungsten filament. Emits light with a higher color temperature than an incandescent bulb.
Have Fun with Pictures
Have Fun with Pictures is available in the Playback menu of select COOLPIX digital cameras such as the S31; and offers a variety of cool things that can be done with the images shot on the camera including Exchange Messages, Picture Play, and Make Photo Albums.
Have Fun with Pictures
HDMI
High-Definition Multimedia Interface is used to transmit uncompressed digital audio and video. Many Nikon cameras feature HDMI ports, allowing users to connect their cameras to a HD television and view their photos and HD video.
HD Movie Mode
Many COOLPIX cameras offer HD movie mode, which records sound movie clips at varying resolution and frame rates, depending on the particular model.
HD Movie Mode
HDR (High Dynamic Range) Photography
HDR photography is a method of capturing multiple images combined to create one with the wide range of tones in a high contrast scene—a range that our eyes can discern, but digital sensors can't render in a single shot.
HDTV
High Definition Television. HDTV has a higher resolution than standard definition television sets. HD resolutions include 720p/720i and 1080p/1080i, which are respectively 1280x720 and 1920x1080.
HD Video
Video captured in high resolution. The HD formats featured in Nikon cameras include HD: 1280x720 (720p) and Full HD: 1920x1080 pixels (1080i or 1080p). (The "p" represents progressive scanning, where each line in the video is scanned in sequence. The "i" represents interlaced scanning, where lines are scanned in an alternating fashion.)
High Eyepoint
An extended distance from the eyepiece to the eyepoint. Important for eyeglass wearers.
High ISO Capability
COOLPIX cameras offer High ISO capability. An advantage that greatly increases photographic possibilities, High ISO capability delivers excellent exposures in challenging, low light conditions, broadening the scope of possible subjects and allowing scenes to be captured beautifully without compromising natural light.
High ISO Capability
High Key
An image distinguished by overall bright, light tones.
High Key Special Effect
A Special Effect that is available on select Nikon digital cameras, for use when shooting bright scenes, to create moody images with prominent highlights. You can shoot stills or movies using the High Key special effect.
High Key Special Effect
Highlight
The bright- and light-tone areas of a subject or scene.
Highlight Display (Zebra Stripes)
Choose whether the brightest areas of the frame (highlights) are shown by slanting lines (zebra stripes) in the display during movie live view. Available with select cameras such as the D810.
Highlights
The brightest parts of a photo.
Highlight Weighted Metering
When selected, the camera assigns the greatest weight to highlights. Use this metering mode to reduce loss of detail in highlights, for example when photographing spotlit performers on a stage. Available with select cameras such as the D810.
Highlight Weighted Metering
High-Magnification Viewfinder
A viewfinder used for viewing the entire image at a magnification higher than that with a standard viewfinder. Useful for close-up work, copy stand work and when trying to focus on subjects with fine detail.
High Speed (HS) Movie
The HS Movie option lets you record video in high speed, with the ability to play back the video at 1/8, 1/4, 1/2 normal speed or 2x as fast. You can change the setting from normal to slow or fast while recording movies.
Histogram
A graphic representation of the range of tones from dark to light within a photo. Some digital cameras include a histogram feature that enables a precise check on the exposure of the photo.
Home [Screen]
The home screen on the COOLPIX S800c is displayed on the camera's LCD when you quit shooting and press the home button. The home screen displays the shooting and playback mode icons as well as buttons for upload, settings and browser. You can place widgets on the home screen to control specific functions, as well as see the status bar, dock bar and shortcuts to apps.
Home [Screen]
Hot Shoe (Accessory Shoe)
A mounting device, usually built onto the top of a camera, that enables a flash unit or select accessories to be mounted on the camera.
Hotspot
A hotspot is a public use of a Wireless Access Point or WAP. It is a site that offers internet access over a wireless LAN (local area network) by connecting a router to an internet service provider. Many hotspots are free for the public to use, while others charge users to access the internet via their hotspot.
Hot Swappable
Provides the option to plug and unplug a computer peripheral or a camera into and out of a USB or FireWire port while the computer is on.
HRI
HRI stands for High Refractive Index Lens. With a refractive index of more than 2.0, one HRI lens can offer effects equivalent to those obtained with several normal glass elements and can compensate for both field curvature and spherical aberrations. Therefore, HRI lenses achieve great optical performance in an even more compact body.
HRI
HRI
HRI stands for High Refractive Index Lens. With a refractive index of more than 2.0, one HRI lens can offer effects equivalent to those obtained with several normal glass elements and can compensate for both field curvature and spherical aberrations. Therefore, HRI lenses achieve great optical performance in an even more compact body.
HRI
Hue
A term that describes the entire range of colors of the spectrum.
HVGA
Half the screen size of VGA screens. HVGA has a screen resolution of 480x320 (3:2), commonly used as a display size for PDA and cellphones.
Hybrid VR
A combination of Lens Shift and Electronic Vibration Reduction for image stabilization. Found in Nikon COOLPIX cameras. First, camera shake is corrected with the Lens Shift VR. If further image correction is required, the camera automatically takes two shots, one with a small amount of blurring taken at a faster than normal shutter speed, and another with a large amount of blurring taken at the normal shutter speed (the image with camera shake). It then aligns the two images to detect how much each pixel has moved. An appropriate amount of blurring, noise and chroma is extracted from each image, and a stabilized image is produced by processing the images while altering the synthesis ratio of both images. This method is most effective with large amounts of blurring. Some Nikon COOLPIX cameras use image processing to correct blurring without taking two shots.
Hyperfocal Distance
The closest point you can focus a lens and still have the depth-of-field including infinity when the lens is focused on infniity. On a NIKKOR lens that does not have a depth-of-field scale, you can calculate the hyperfocal distance by using the formula: H = f 2 / ( F x CoC ) where "H" is the hyperfocal distance in mm, "f" is the focal length, "F" is the aperture and "CoC" is a Circle of Confusion value (0.033 for 35mm film or an FX format camera or 0.020 for a DX format body). The maximum permissible circle of confusion will vary depending on the image reproduction size, image capture format and other variables.
IF Lens
A NIKKOR lens in which only the internal lens group shifts during focusing. Thus, IF NIKKORS do not change in size during AF operation, allowing for compact, lightweight lenses capable of closer focusing distances. These lenses will be designated with the abbreviation IF on the lens barrel.
IF Lens
I-frames
Intra (I) frames, also known as reference or key frames, contain the necessary data to re-create a complete image. An I-frame stands by itself without requiring data from other frames in the Group of Pictures (GOP). Every GOP contains one I-frame, though it doesn't have to be the first frame of the Group. I-frames are the largest type of MPEG frame, but they're faster to decompress than other kinds of MPEG frames.
Image Area Selection
Image Area Selection is a feature available on the select Nikon Speedlight flashes such as the SB-900. When mounted on a camera that can select an image area between FX-format (36x24) and DX-format (24x16), the Speedlight automatically selects the suitable light distribution angle in accordance with the camera’s image area setting.
Image Authentication Software
Verify JPEG, TIFF and NEF (RAW) data taken using a compatible Nikon digital SLR. This secure software checks if an image has been processed or edited after capture.
Image Browser
An application that enables you to view digital photos. Some browsers also allow you to rename files, convert photos from one file format to another and add text descriptions.
Image Editor
A computer program that enables you to adjust a photo to improve or change its appearance.
Image Overlay
Image overlay combines two existing NEF (RAW) photos to create a single picture that is then saved as a separate file. The results, which make use of RAW data from the camera's image sensor, are noticeably better than photographs combined in imaging software. Check your camera's manual for step-by-step instructions.
Image Resolution
The number of pixels in a digital photo is commonly referred to as its image resolution.
Image Sharpening
A function that controls the sharpness of outlines in photographs.
Image Size
The dimensions of an image in pixels. Sometimes stated using abbreviations such as “L” (large), “M” (medium), or “S” (small).
Image Space
Image Space is Nikon's online image storage website. It was formerly called My Picturetown. In addition to the desktop version, Image Space has apps for iOS and Android™ smart phones and tablets.
In-Camera HDR
Select Nikon cameras have an in-camera HDR (High Dynamic Range) mode so make sure to review your reference manual for complete details on setting your camera for HDR. When shooting HDR, the camera automatically combines two exposures to form a single image that captures a wide range of tones, from shadows to highlights. The first exposure is darker (underexposed) and the second exposure brighter (overexposed). They are combined into one image that has a wider range of tones than can be captured in one exposure. HDR mode is only available with JPEG recording, not RAW (NEF) recording. Along with choosing the exposure difference, the user is given the choice of Smoothing (high, normal or low). Smoothing refers to the look of the composite HDR image. High and normal produce a more natural look, whereas low produces an image with a more surreal look.
Incandescent

Incandescent light refers to the illumination produced from typical household light bulbs (tungsten bulbs) incorporating a heated tungsten wire filament. The light produced is “yellow” or a warmer-than-daylight white balance. Setting a camera’s white balance to Incandescent will correct for the yellow cast.

In terms of color temperature, incandescent light generally falls between 2500 and 3500 degrees Kelvin.

Color Temperature

Light Source

1000-2000 K

      Candlelight

2500-3500 K

      Tungsten Bulb (household variety)

3000-4000 K

      Sunrise/Sunset (clear sky)

4000-5000 K

      Fluorescent Lamps

5000-5500 K

      Electronic Flash

5000-6500 K

      Daylight with Clear Sky (sun overhead)

6500-8000 K

      Moderately Overcast Sky

9000-10000 K

      Shade or Heavily Overcast Sky

Incandescent
Incandescent White Balance Setting
Incandescent is a white balance setting. When manually setting the white balance on your digital camera, and shooting under incandescent lights (indoor residential lighting) you use the incandescent setting to color balance the available light so it is captured correctly by the camera.
Incandescent White Balance Setting
Incident-Light Exposure Meter
A type of hand-held meter that measures the light falling on a subject. Not affected by a subject’s reflective properties, it should be positioned near the subject.
Indices/Index Marking
Index markers are used in editing. Select Nikon D-SLR cameras can place markers in the digital video file in-camera. Index markers are reference points, used to locate frames during playback or editing, and do not alter the actual video.
Infinity
A focus mode available on select Nikon digital cameras. Use the Infinity setting when shooting distant scenes or when shooting landscapes.
Infrared Compensation Index
In infrared photography with most lenses, the plane of sharpest focus is slightly farther away than that in visible-light photography.
Infrared Film
Specially sensitized film that detects invisible infrared rays.
Infrared Photography
Refers to taking pictures in light beyond the visible spectrum.
Inkjet
A printer that places ink on the paper by spraying droplets through tiny nozzles.
Interpolation
The process whereby an image-editing program adds supplemental pixels that are created from the image's existing, neighboring pixels, in effect creating a file with more image data and thus producing better image output.
Intervalometer
A timing device that is used to trigger the camera's shutter at pre-determined intervals. It is used in time lapse photography. It is also known as an interval timer.
Inverse Square Law
This law of physics indicates that when you increase the distance between a subject to twice as far away from a light source, it will then receive one quarter of the light. So, when you move a subject twice as far from the original light source, you will need to increase the amount of light four times. 
iPhone App.
An application that works on the Apple Inc. iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad. The Nikon Learn & Explore app is free, and can be downloaded from the Apple App store. It allows users to read L&E articles and view videos or audio podcasts posted on Learn & Explore.
IPTC
ITPC stands for the International Press Telecommunications Council. The ITPC came up with the Information Interchange Model or IIM file structure and metadata attributes that can be applied to images as well as text and other types of media files. It is almost universally accepted by photographers as the standard format for embedding metadata into an image file. Such embedded metadata could include the photographer's name, copyright information, or other descriptions. Almost all of the IIM attributes are supported by EXIF. ITPC data is found in the ITPC Header and is compatible with JPEG and TIFF files. In recent years, XMP (Extensible Metadata Platform) has taken over as the defacto standard format for embedding this data in an image file. 
IPTC Presets
In select Nikon D-SLR cameras, IPTC presets can be imported into the camera before shooting, so as images are saved, the IPTC data is written to them, saving editors and photographers a great deal of time doing this in post-production.
ISO
Acronym for International Organization for Standardization. Refers to the international standard for representing the sensitivity to light of an imaging sensor or film by a numerical value.
ISO Control
Selected Nikon D-SLRs offer auto ISO control, a feature that will maintain a selected shutter speed range. Here's how it works: In aperture-priority operation, for instance, choose ISO control and set a base shutter speed of, for example, 1/250 second—meaning that you don't want the shutter speed to go below that setting. When the light level in the scene requires a shutter speed slower than 1/250 second, the camera will automatically kick up the ISO to maintain that shutter speed.

Along with f/stop and shutter speed, ISO is an important element of exposure control.
i-TTL Balanced Fill Flash
Nikon's i-TTL (intelligent through-the-lens) Balanced Fill-Flash automatically balances the output of the Nikon Speedlight and the scene's ambient light.

Immediately before the main flash goes off, the Speedlight fires a series of monitor pre-flashes, which convey Information about the scene's lighting to the camera. Combined with information from the camera's 3D Color Matrix metering system, the information is analyzed to adjust flash output to balance the scene's ambient light.

All of this complex processing happens in a fraction of a second, before each exposure, to provide unprecedented levels of flash precision and performance.
i-TTL Flash Control
Nikon's i-TTL (intelligent through-the-lens) flash system meters every exposure, setting the Nikon Speedlight's output to the precise level needed to balance the scene's ambient light.

Milliseconds before the main flash, Nikon Speedlights emit a monitor pre-flash, which reflects off every object in the frame, sending to the five-segment i-TTL flash sensor and RGB sensor the data about the scene's available light and shadow areas, subject distance, reflectance and color temperature. This information, along with data from the Matrix metering system, is analyzed to adjust the flash's output for the most balanced background-to-foreground exposure possible. All of this complex processing happens in a fraction of a second, before each exposure, to provide unprecedented levels of flash precision and performance.
Jaggies
Slang term for the stair-like appearance of an angled or curved line in digital imaging.
JPEG
A standard for compressing image data developed by the Joint Photographic Experts Group.
Jump Cut Movie Option
A movie option that is available in select cameras such as the Nikon 1 V3. It records silent jump-cut movies. Recording pauses every other second for a drop-frame effect.
Jump Cut Movie Option
Kelvin
A unit of temperature. In photography, it refers most often to the temperature of a color.
Kelvin White Balance Setting
The Kelvin scale is a unit of temperature measurement, and is recognized using the symbol "K". In addition to white balance settings based on lighting scenarios, one can also set the white balance in many Nikon digital cameras using degrees Kelvin.
Kelvin White Balance Setting
Key Light
The key light is also known as the main light in a multiple light studio set-up.
KeyMission
KeyMission is Nikon’s brand name for its line of action cameras. These include the KeyMission 360, KeyMission 170 and KeyMission 80. The KeyMission 360 can record videos and still images in 360° and played back on a smart device or computer with interactivity, allowing the viewer to select how they wish to view the content. The KeyMission 170 records videos and still images in 170°; and the KeyMission 80 offers an 80° field of view.
KeyMission 360/170 Utility Software
KeyMission 360/170 Utility is free software designed specifically for use with the KeyMission 360 and KeyMission 170 action cameras. The Utility enables you to transfer images and movies to your computer for viewing and editing. You can also use it to change the camera’s settings. KeyMission 360/170 Utility is compatible with both Mac and Windows-based PC computers.
KeyMission 360/170 Utility Software
Kicker Light
The kicker light is also known as the rim light in a multi-light studio set-up.
Kilobyte
A unit of information equal to 1,024 bytes.
Lag Time
The delay between the time the shutter is pressed and the camera captures the image. Also known as shutter delay, it is most noticeable in compact digital cameras. Today's digital SLRs have virtually no lag time.
Landscape Scene Mode
A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras, that preserves the vivid colors of landscapes.
Landscape Scene Mode
Latitude
The degree to which the exposure level can be varied and still produce acceptable results.
LCD
Liquid crystal display. A display screen on a digital camera or other digital device that lets you view information, data, camera settings or images.
LED
Light emitting diode. A semiconductor diode that emits narrow spectrum light, an LED is a source of light generally used to illuminate small areas. Often used in computer and imaging devices.
Lens
An optical device that transmits light to film or a sensor.
Lens Coating
A layer or multiple layers of thin, anti-reflective materials applied to the surface of lens elements to reduce light reflection and increase the amount of transmitted light.
Lens Drive System
Refers to the mechanisms that achieve movement in an autofocus lens. There are two types: in one, the drive motor is located inside the lens; in the other, a motor inside the camera body turns the lens via a drive shaft.
Lens Hood
A conical device placed at the end of a lens to block rays of light (most often from the sun) from entering the lens and causing glare or lens flare.
Lens Shift VR
Lens Shutter
A shutter located near or inside the lens optical system. Lens shutters are used mainly in compact cameras and in lenses for large-format cameras.
Lens Speed
The maximum aperture of a lens. See Fast Lens.
Lifelogging
Lifelogging is the practice of using a wearable camera to capture a person’s entire life or large portions thereof. Lifelogging can include video or still photos. The KeyMission 80 action camera is designed for lifelogging with its small and lightweight size and supplied camera holder, which easily connects to a backpack or other item, and is at the ready when needed.
Light Meter
Usually refers to a device built-in to the camera which measures the scene's light in order to determine the optimum exposure.
Light Modifiers
Accessory equipment that is used with Nikon Speedlights and other types of lighting equipment, to soften, direct or change the direction and quality of light. Examples of light modifiers include diffusers, softboxes, reflectors, gobos, grids, spotlights, snoots, barndoors, flags and light tents.
Linear PCM Audio Compression
Linear pulse-code modulation or LPCM is a method of encoding audio information digitally. It also refers to the formats that use this method of audio encoding. Pulse-code modulation or PCM, though more general, is often used to describe data that is encoded as LPCM.
Live Frame Grab
In the custom settings menu, you can choose the role played by pressing the shutter-release button when Movie Mode is selected with the live view selector. If the shutter-release button is pressed all the way down during movie recording, the camera will record a photograph without interrupting movie recording. Photos are 1,920 x 1,080 pixels in size (aspect ratio 16:9) and recorded at an image quality of JPEG fine (quality-priority). Note that during movie recording, photos are taken one at a time regardless of the release mode selected; this restriction does not apply if movie recording is not currently in progress)
Live Image Control
Live image control lets you preview how changes to various controls will affect the final image. You can use Live image control to see the changes in Active D-Lighting, Background Softening, Motion Control and Brightness Control.
Live View
Live View Shooting Mode is almost exactly what it says: you're seeing what the camera's lens is seeing, but you're seeing it on the camera's LCD. We say "almost" because you're seeing a video replay of the scene a split-second after the camera's sensor and memory have captured it. Live View enables you to view and compose the shot without looking through the finder, and it's ideal for situations in which you want to, or need to, hold the camera at an unusual angle or away from your body. To capture video with a Nikon D-SLR, the camera must be in Live View Shooting Mode.
Live View
Live View Guide
The information display, within movie live view, will show a guide to the options available during movie live view.
Loop Lighting
A lighting technique whereby there is a pleasing shadow in the shape of a loop under the nose. Loop lighting is flattering for many types of faces. The main light is placed above the subject and to the right or left in the direction that the subject's face is pointing.
Loop Recording
The Loop Recording feature is available on select cameras such as the KeyMission 360 and KeyMission 170 action cameras. After recording a movie for a specified time, the camera continues recording the movie while deleting the recorded movie data from the beginning. Only the most recent data is saved to the memory card, resulting in a movie of the specified length. The movie is recorded as five separate files, however when playing them back, the recorded movies saved in the camera via the SnapBridge 360/170 app or on a TV, the split movies are played back continuously. Possible movie lengths that can be chosen are: 5 minutes (default), 10, 30 and 60 minutes.
Loop Recording
Lossless Compression
A method for reducing the size of a photographic file so that when it is uncompressed, the resulting image matches the quality of the original source.
Lossy Compression
A reduction of image file size by disposing of unneeded data, resulting in a slight degradation of image quality.
Low-Cut Filter
The Low-Cut filter reduces the low-frequency noise, such as wind blowing over/past the mic.
Low Key
Refers to an image distinguished by overall dark tones.
Low Key Special Effect
A Special Effect that is available on select Nikon digital cameras, for use when shooting dark scenes, to create bright images that seem filled with light. You can shoot stills or movies using the Low Key special effect.
Low Key Special Effect
M/A
Select NIKKOR lenses have a focusing mode which allows switching from automatic to manual focusing with virtually no lag time by simply turning the focusing ring on the lens. This makes it possible to seamlessly switch to fine manual focusing while looking through the viewfinder.
M/A
Macro Adapter Ring
An adapter mounted on the front of a lens to allow use of the lens in reverse position.
Macro Focusing
Often refers to the capability of certain zoom lenses in which the lens group moves, enabling the lens to focus closer than the normal close-up focusing distance.
Macro Lens
A lens capable of extreme close-up photography in which the captured image (on the film or image sensor) is typically from half life-size (1:2 reproduction ratio) to life-size (1:1 reproduction ratio).
Macro Photography
Refers to close-up photography, particularly photography that results in the subject appearing close to life-size in the image.
Macro Scene Mode
A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras that is used to take extreme close up photos of small objects or other subjects.
Macro Scene Mode
Magnetic Storage
See storage
Make Photo Albums
Select COOLPIX digital cameras such as the S31 offer a "Have fun with pictures" mode in the playback menu that allows you to perform a range of creative options. One such option is to make photo albums. The camera offers a number album designs that can be utilized; and will display finished photo albums one page at a time.
Make Photo Albums
Manual Exposure
An exposure for which you set both the shutter speed and lens aperture.
Manual Exposure
Manual Focus
Manual Focus. MF is one of the focus modes that are availalble on select cameras when in Live View.
Manual Focus
Matrix Balanced Fill-Flash
Nikon's through-the-lens (TTL) automatic fill-flash system using Nikon's Matrix Metering system.
Matrix Metering
An advanced metering mode in which the camera's computer sets exposure based on its analysis of the scene's components. It is generally regarded as the most accurate metering for most lighting situations, including those with complex lighting. Matrix Meter or 3D RGB Color Matrix Meter gathers information from the red, green, and blue sensors and factors in distance information provided by the lens as it evaluates proper exposure calculation. This meter instantly analyzes a scene's overall brightness, contrast, and other lighting characteristics, comparing what is sees against an onboard database of over 30,000 images for unsurpassed exposure accuracy, even in the most challenging photographic situations. By the time the 3D Matrix meter has made its considerations of colors by hue and saturation, tonal ranges by brightest and darkest, areas of similar tonality that are connected or separated, distance to the subject, and compared that to its database generated from photographic images, it's got a very good idea of what the exposure should be.

If you are a beginner, Matrix is where you should start. As your skills grow, and they will, you will acquire a better understand of when it might be beneficial to use other light metering options.

What is the database of over 30,000 images? Over the years Nikon has studied the color, area of coverage, focus distance, contrast, size and shape of shadows and highlights and exposure characteristics of over 30,000 actual photographic images and incorporated this data as a reference source for the expert exposure system that is the 3D Color Matrix Meter.
Matrix Metering
Matte Field
A granular textured surface that disperses light in order to form a clear image. Used in the viewfinder optical system.
Maximum Aperture

The maximum diameter of the lens opening is referred to as its maximum aperture or minimum f-number. The minimum f-number is the smallest f-number that can be selected with the lens. The maximum aperture varies from lens to lens and is included in the lens model name.

ME-1 Stereo Microphone
The Nikon ME-1 Stereo Microphone is an optional accessory that sits on the camera's hotshoe and connects to compatible D-SLR cameras via a 3.5mm Mic jack. The ME-1 is also compatible with the Nikon 1 V1 and the COOLPIX P7100.
Media
Material that information is written to and stored on. Digital photography storage media includes CompactFlash cards and CDs.
Megabyte
A Megabyte (mb) is a measurement of data storage equal to 1,024 kilobytes (kb) or roughly 1,000,000 bytes. Often referred to as a meg or megs.
Megapixel
Equal to one million pixels.
Meniscus Glass
Nikon's exclusive protective glass for NIKKOR lenses comes attached to the front of fast super-telephoto lenses. Normal flat protective glass lets incoming light reflect off the surface of the image sensor or film, especially under a strong light source such as a spotlight. This then reflects again off the protective glass, resulting in a ghost effect. Nikon's curved meniscus glass dramatically reduces this re-reflected light, realizing clearer images with less ghosting.
Mic
Mic is short for microphone. Nikon digital cameras that can record audio have a built-in mic.Some Nikon digital cameras also feature an external mic input port, which allow for the use of dedicated microphones during video recording.
MicroDrive
MicroDrive is the brand name for a miniature one-inch hard disk that fits in a CompactFlash Type II media card slot. The MicroDrive was developed by IBM. It is not as popular a media card format as the flash based CompactFlash card which is more stable since it does not have moving parts.
Micro Lens
For most purposes, a micro lens is another term for a macro lens. Both terms indicate extreme close-up capability; macro and micro lenses produce half life-size (1:2 reproduction ratio) to life-size (1:1 reproduction ratio) images.
Micro-NIKKOR
A Nikon lens specially designed for close-up photography. Micro-NIKKORs focus from infinity down to a reproduction ratio of 1:1 or more without accessories.
Micro Photography
Refers to taking close-ups in which the resulting image shows the subject ranging from life size (1:1) to 50 times (50:1) magnification.
Microprism
A focusing aid located in the focusing screen.
Micro SD
Micro SD is a media card format that is designed for use in cameras and other electronic devices. It is smaller than a traditional SD or Secure Digital media card.
Miniature Effect
A Special Effect available on certain Nikon D-SLR cameras. Distant subjects captured in this mode appear as miniatures. When capturing D-movies in this mode, playback looks like a time lapse movie and sound is not recorded.
Miniature Effect
Mired Color Temperatures
Any given change in color temperature produces a greater difference in color at low color temperatures than it would at higher color temperatures. For example, a change of 1000K produces a much greater change in color at 3000K than at 6000K.
Mirror Cutoff
A slight darkening of the edge of the viewfinder image due to the technical limits on the size of the reflex mirror. It may occur when you're using long telephoto lens or a bellows. It is visible in the viewfinder, not in the picture.
Mirror Lockup
A feature that allows you to manually raise and lock the reflex mirror in a single-lens reflex camera. Useful for preventing camera shake caused by mirror movement.
Mirror Up Mode
Mode featuerd in select D-SLRs. Press the shutter-release button once to raise the mirror, again to take photograph (shutter will be released automatically if shutter-release button is not pressed for 30 seconds after mirror up). The mirror will be lowered after the shutter is released. Choose this mode to minimize camera shake in situations in which the least camera movement can result in blurred photographs. Note that autofocus, metering, and