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14 Bit A/D Conversion
Analog to Digital conversion is usually the first stage in the process of converting an analog signal coming from the image sensor via multiple channels into digital data for the image processing and storage of image data. The higher the bit rate of this conversion, the higher the image quality. Nikon D-SLRs typically offer a 16 bit image processing pipeline, which converts images of 12 bit or 14 bit depth quickly and efficiently.
The trade name given to the NIKKOR lenses that have been designed for optimal use with the CX-format Nikon 1 digital camera system.
256-bit Encryption
256 bit Encryption is a security protocol that is characterized by key sizes that may be any multiple of 32 bits, both with a minimum of 128 and a maximum of 256 bits. This is a secure and very fast encryption type for both software and computers.
3D Color Matrix Metering II
Matrix metering evaluates multiple segments of a scene to determine the best exposure by essentially splitting the scene into sections, evaluating either 420-segments or 1,005 segments, depending on the Nikon D-SLR in use. The 3D Color Matrix Meter II takes into account the scene's contrast and brightness, the subject's distance (via a D- or G-type NIKKOR lens), the color of the subject within the scene and RGB color values in every section of the scene. 3D Color Matrix Metering II also uses special exposure-evaluation algorithms, optimized for digital imaging, that detect highlight areas. The meter then accesses a database of over 30,000 actual images to determine the best exposure for the scene. Once the camera receives the scene data, its powerful microcomputer and the database work together to provide the finest automatic exposure control available.
3D Focus Tracking
An invaluable feature for sports, action and wildlife photography, 3D focus tracking, available in select Nikon D-SLRs, automatically shifts the focus point to follow the movement of the subject. With the shutter release pressed halfway, you'll see in the viewfinder the lens continuously maintain focus as the subject moves.

However, maintaining focus doesn't guarantee a sharp image, as there is a short time lag between the release of the shutter and the capture of the picture. To solve this problem, the focus tracking system is a predictive system that uses special algorithms to forecast the position of the subject at the moment the image is captured. The prediction is based on a measurement of the subject's movement and speed.

Simple predictive tracking is very effective for pictures of a subject moving at constant speed toward the camera, but to provide maximum focusing performance for a subject that abruptly changes direction at high speed, or a subject with low contrast, moving randomly, the AF system must accumulate subject location data using multiple focus areas. The AF modules built into selected Nikon D-SLRs have as many as 51 focus areas that can detect vertical, horizontal and diagonal movement of the subject.

To realize high-precision AF for high-speed continuous shooting of a fast-moving subject, the processing speed of the AF cycle is vital. To provide that speed, a Nikon proprietary technology called overlap servo prepares for the focus detection of the next shot while the lens-driving operation for the current shot is in process.
3D Matrix Metering
An exclusive Nikon feature, Matrix metering applies three types of data to calculate exposure: scene brightness, scene contrast and the focused subject’s distance (which requires the use of a D-type NIKKOR lens).
3D Mode
The Nikon COOLPIX S100 digital camera offers a 3D mode, which in effect takes two images that are played back on a 3D compatible TV or monitor for stereoscopic viewing.
3D Mode
3D Multi-Sensor Balanced Fill-flash
An automatic, balanced fill-flash system in which the flash fires a series of pre-flashes just before the first shutter curtain moves.
3D Playback Mode
Only 3D images can be viewed in the 3D Playback Mode. It can only be chosen when the 3D-capable Nikon COOLPIX digital camera is connected to a 3D compatible TV or monitor via an HDMI cable.
3D Tracking (11-points) AF-Area Mode
The 3D-tracking AF-Area Mode is an AF-Area Mode that is available in select Nikon digital cameras. When the user is in either AF-A or AF-C focus modes, the user selects the focus point. As long as the shutter button is kept pressed halfway, if the subject moves after the camera has focused, the camera uses 3D-tracking to select a new focus point and keep the focus locked on the original subject. If the subject leaves the viewfinder, remove your finger from the shutter release button and recompose the photograph with the subject in the selected focus point.
3D Tracking (11-points) AF-Area Mode
4K is an emerging standard for digital motion picture resolution. The standard is so named because it refers to its approx. 4,000 pixels of horizontal resolution. 4K incorporates a number of aspect ratios that all utilize 4,000 pixels of horizontal resolution x differing numbers of pixels of vertical resolution. This is contrary to the standard HD resolutions of 720p and 1080p which represent the number of vertical pixels.
4 Second Movie
A movie option that is available in select cameras such as the Nikon 1 V3. Record a 4-second movie clip. Multiple clips can be joined into a single movie using the Combine 4-second movies option in the playback menu.
4 Second Movie
51 Point Autofocus System
Available in selected Nikon D-SLRs, the 51-point AF system positions 51 points of focus within the frame to allow photographers to choose a variety of focus configurations to suit the shooting situation.

The 51-area grid forms a wide rectangle across the frame, with minimal spacing between each AF area. The system keeps even quick-moving subjects in focus across a wide extent of the frame. The 15 points of the three center rows of focus points employ cross-type sensors for powerful focus detection.
91,000 pixel RGB 3D Matrix Metering III
Face detection using the optical viewfinder and detailed scene analysis using the 91,000 pixel RGB 3D Matrix Metering III sensor with the advanced scene recognition system enables superior auto exposure, auto white balance detection, AF performance and i-TTL flash exposure.
AA (Auto Aperture mode on Nikon Speedlights)
The flash uses its sensor to control the flash output in combination with data automatically transmitted from the camera and lens to the flash including the ISO sensitivity, aperture, focal length and exposure compensation value.
AAC is a standard audio file format. Nikon cameras record audio to the AAC monaural file format.
An aberration prevents light from being brought into sharp focus. The ideal image by lenses (especially photographic lenses), must fulfill three key conditions, namely, 1. all light from the point object must be focused to a single point on the image plane (film or digital sensor); 2. when the object plane is perpendicular to the optical axis, the image plane must also be perpendicular; and 3. the object and the image (on the film or imaging sensor) must closely resemble each other. In reality, however, light refraction by the lens causes a variety of defects in the image, called aberration.

The five most common types in aberration are SEIDEL's five aberrations, which occur even with monochromatic (single-wavelength) light. In addition, there are also two types of chromatic aberrations, which are caused by more than one frequency. It is impossible to eliminate them all, but in the lens design process, they can be controlled and balanced to provide the best possible result for that lens and application. This is handled by material (glass) selection, shape and positioning.
Action Control
A mode incorporated into select cameras such as the Nikon COOLPIX AW100 and AW110 digital cameras and the Nikon 1 AW1. When the action control is set to ON, you can control certain functions of the camera simply by swinging it in the air. The default setting is HIGH, which means that even if the camera is shaken by a small amount, it will register. When set to LOW, a large amount of movement is needed to register by the camera.
Action Control
Active D-Lighting
Active D-Lighting optimizes high contrast images to restore the shadow and highlight details that are often lost when strong lighting increases the contrast between bright and dark areas of an image. It can be set to operate automatically or manually, and it's also possible to bracket pictures to get one with Active D-Lighting and one without.

Active D-Lighting's image optimization, which takes place in the camera at the moment the photo is taken, applies digital processing only to the necessary portion(s) of the image. Even when shooting a subject with a wide dynamic range, Active D-Lighting is able to reproduce a realistic image that retains natural contrast. 
Add a Bubble Effect
Add a Bubble Effect is a special effect found in select Nikon COOLPIX cameras such as the S32, it allows you to add a bubble effect to your images, so your subject will look as if it is projected on a bubble. A guide will be displayed in the monitor, and you simply compose your shot so the subject is within the guide.
Add a Bubble Effect
Add a Cartoon Effect
Add a Cartoon Effect is a special effect found in select Nikon COOLPIX cameras such as the S32. When chosen, the camera performs tone compensation to make the image appear like a cartoon.
Add a Cartoon Effect
Add a Neon Effect
Add a Neon Effect is a special effect found on select COOLPIX cameras such as the S32, which when chosen, makes the outlines of a subject appear to glow with neon tubing.
Add a Neon Effect
Add Starbursts
Add Starbursts is a Picture Play feature that is available on select COOLPIX digital cameras. Choosing it will cause star-like rays of light to radiate outward from bright objects such as sunlight reflections or street lights. This effect is suitable for night scenes.
Add Starbursts
Adjustable Zoom Speeds
Certain 1 NIKKOR lenses feature adjustable zoom speeds, for versatility when shooting both stills and movies.
Advanced Movie Mode
The Advanced Movie Mode allows you to film slow-motion or HD movies in PSAM modes on select Nikon 1 cameras including the V2.
Advanced Movie Mode
AE Lock
AE lock is used to hold an automatically selected shutter speed and/or aperture.
AES Encryption
AES stands for Advanced Encryption Standard. This is the preferred standard that is used to encrypt commercial and government data.
AF Area Modes
Nikon's three AF Area Modes—Single Point AF, Dynamic Area AF and Auto Area AF—are designed to handle any shooting situation.

With good light control and a static subject, Single Point AF ensures that the most important element in the composition, such as the eyes in a portrait, will be sharply focused.

With Dynamic Area AF, you can select from several focusing options: 9-, 21- or all 51-point AF. Select a Single AF point and the areas surrounding it serve as backup—a significant advantage when shooting moving subjects. Select the 9-point option when you want to focus on erratically moving subjects with greater accuracy. When dealing with insufficient contrast for fast focus detection, choosing 21 or 51 points makes detection easier. The 51-point option also allows for 3D Focus Tracking, which uses color information from the RGB metering sensor to automatically follow moving subjects across the AF points.

Auto Area AF uses color information and special face recognition algorithms to automatically focus on an individual's face, which is extremely helpful when there's simply no time to select a focus point, or when using Live View in hand-held mode at high or low angles.
AF Assist Illuminator
A beam of light automatically activated to provide the camera's autofocus system the necessary light to operate in poorly lit situations. The AF assist illuminator's light does not appear in the picture.
A NIKKOR lens with a built-in conventional rotor type autofocus drive motor.
AF Lock
Autofocus lock is typically used to hold focus on the part of the scene that's most important to you.
AF-S: Autofocus Silent
Focusing is driven by a "Silent Wave" motor in the lens instead of the focus drive motor in the camera. AF-S lenses focus faster than standard AF-NIKKORs and almost completely silently. AF-S lenses with a "II" designation weigh less and are generally smaller than their equivalent predecessors.
AF Sensor
The AF sensor is a sensor used to detect focus.
AF Servo
Essentially, motor-driven autofocus; engage it and a digital SLR's autofocus system will continuously track (focus) on a moving subject.
An Assist GPS (A.GPS) file is an updated file of GPS data that can be downloaded from the web and uploaded into select Nikon digital cameras to shorten the time needed by the camera to track the GPS positioning information. The website housing the A.GPS file is http://nikonimglib.com/agps/index.html. Once you download the file to your computer, follow the instructions in your camera's manual.
AI (Automatic Maximum Aperture Indexing) System
AI became standard on Nikon cameras and NIKKOR lenses in 1977. Non-AI lenses coupled to the camera's meter through a system that required a pin on the camera to be mated to a slotted prong on the lens before the lens was mounted, then the aperture ring on the lens had to be turned from one extreme to the other to index the meter to the maximum aperture of the lens. AI eliminates this entire procedure because meter coupling and indexing occur automatically when the lens is mounted on the camera. Most AI lenses made until a few years ago were also supplied with the coupling prong so they would be compatible with either metering system.
A manual-focus NIKKOR lens with a built-in CPU which transfers data from the lens to the camera's metering systems.
Airplane Mode
Airplane Mode disables all wireless or GPS connections on a camera. Select Nikon COOLPIX cameras have built-in GPS or wireless connectivity and must be placed in airplane mode when flying in a plane, in hospitals and other such locations.
AI-S: Automatic Indexing (modified)
AI-S coupling is a refinement of AI and became standard on NIKKOR lenses in 1982. The diaphragm action in an AI-S lens is compatible with Nikon cameras that allow the aperture to be controlled from the camera, as is required for programmed and shutter-priority automatic exposure control. All AF-NIKKOR lenses, as well as most manual-focus NIKKOR lenses made since 1982, are AI-S.
A type of digital image distortion most often seen when straight lines or edges in a digital image are enlarged to the point at which they appear jagged.
A/M stands for Auto-Priority Manual Mode. This mode also enables an easy transition from autofocus to manual during AF operation. However, mode switch sensitivity has been altered to reduce the possibility of sudden unintentional switching to manual focus while shooting.
A-M stands for Auto-Manual Mode. Thanks to a mechanism incorporated in the lens barrel, smooth focusing operation in Manual focus mode is realized in the same way as users have become accustomed to with conventional manual-focus lenses by adding an appropriate torque to the focus ring.
Ambient Light
The natural light in a scene.
Angle of Flash Coverage
The measurement in degrees of the angle formed by lines projecting from the center of the flash to the extremities of the field of coverage.
Angle of Incidence
The angle of light hitting a surface. A basic rule of physics says that the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflectance, which means that the angle of the light coming towards the surface is the same as the angle of light reflected off of the surface. For example, if light hitting a surface came from a light source that was on a 45 degree angle from the surface, the light reflecting off of the surface would travel on a 45 degree angle as well. 
Angle of Reflectance
See Angle of Incidence.
Angle of View
A (Non-TTL Auto mode on Nikon Speedlights)
The flash uses its sensor to measure the flash illumination reflected back from the subject controlling flash output to give correct exposure.
An optical process that samples the edges of an image to fill in the missing areas that cause a jagged appearance.
The circular opening inside the lens that can change in diameter to control the amount of light reaching a camera's sensor or film. The diameter is expressed in numbers called f/stops; the lower the number, the larger the aperture opening.
Aperture-Priority Auto Exposure
A shutter speed that is automatically selected by the camera to match the photographer's manually set lens aperture for a correct exposure. Especially useful for controlling depth-of-field.
A computer program, such as an image editor or image browser.
Applications (Apps)
The COOLPIX S800c digital camera features the Android platform, which runs apps or applications that can be downloaded to the camera, for shooting and sharing of digital images and video.
Applications (Apps)
APS-C stands for Advanced Photo System-type C, which is an image sensor format that is equivalent to approximately the size of the Advanced Photo System negative (25.1x16.7mm). The Nikon DX format image sensor is an APS-C format sensor.
The ability of a material, including some printing papers and compact discs, to last for many years.
Measure of a film's "light gathering" capability. Replaced by ISO for film and digital.
Aspect Ratio
The width of an image divided by its height. In still photography, common aspect ratios are 4:3 (images from digital cameras) and 3:2 (images from film cameras).
Aspherical Lens
A lens with a curved, non-spherical surface. Used to reduce aberrations and enable a more compact lens size. Aspherical lenses minimize coma and other types of lens aberrations, even when used at the widest aperture. They are particularly useful in correcting distortion in wide-angle lenses and help contribute to a lighter, more compact design by reducing the number of standard (spherical) elements necessary. Aspherical lens elements correct these distortions by continuously changing the refractive index from the center of the lens.
Aspherical Lens
One of Seidel's five aberrations. Astigmatism is an aberration that causes points to blur, degrading sharpness. It can be reduced but not eliminated by stopping down the lens.
Astrophotography is the specialized type of photography done of the night sky, stars, planets, and other celestial objects. Lunar and Solar eclipses as well as star trails also fall under Astrophotography. Specialized equipment may be necessary in photographing certain celestial subjects like telescopes, solar filters, etc.
Audio Monitoring
Using a visual display or auditory (using headphones) to monitor audio levels. This helps keep audio levels at their optimum level. It also helps to minimize degradation. Volume Unit (VU Meter) and Peak Program (PPM Meter) are common types of meters used to measure audio levels. They can be hardware or software based; regardless of type, the scale and ballistics of the meter are important characteristics.
Auto Area AF
Auto Area AF is one of Nikon's AF Area Modes. Auto Area AF uses color information and special face recognition algorithms to automatically focus on an individual's face, which is extremely helpful when there's simply no time to select a focus point, or when using Live View in hand-held mode at high or low angles.
Auto Area AF
Auto Distortion Control
When you take pictures underwater, the water itself sometimes causes distortion to occur. The Auto Distortion Control, available on select cameras, automatically compensates for this.
Auto Exposure (AE)
In Auto Exposure mode, the camera automatically adjusts the shutter speed and aperture for the optimum exposure for the scene being photographed.
Autofocus (AF)
A system of sensors and motors that allow lenses to obtain focus automatically; in some cameras, the system also allows the lens to maintain focus on a moving subject.
Auto FP High-Speed Sync
Auto FP High Speed Sync is a flash mode used for fill-flash photography under brightly lit conditions. It will fill in and open up shadowed areas in order to portray the greatest detail in subjects. It's also ideal when using wide aperture lenses, and because it allows fast shutter speeds—up to fastest shutter speeds on compatible Nikon D-SLRs—it is often used for action-stopping sports photography. And for portraits, you can open up your lenses to their full aperture in order to isolate your subject against a blurred background without overexposing the image.

When Auto FP High Speed Sync is selected, the flash will fire for the duration of the shutter curtain's travel, thus syncing with the camera's shutter speed when that speed is set higher than the camera's normal sync speed.
Auto ISO
Auto ISO or ISO Auto is a feature that allows you to tell the camera to choose which ISO to use if certain parameters are met. For instance, when there is enough light to use ISO 100, the camera does so, but when it would have to use too slow a shutter speed, then it automatically increases the ISO to 200 and maintains a high enough shutter speed to avoid camera shake. Some Nikon digital cameras let you choose from a range that you're willing to shoot within, such as ISO 400 – 800.
Automatic Balanced Fill-Flash
Nikon's TTL (through-the-lens) auto flash operation.
Automatic Exposure (AE)
With automatic exposure (AE) the camera's computer and metering system automatically select the aperture and shutter speed for a correct exposure.
Automatic Exposure Bracketing
A feature that sets the camera to take a series of pictures (usually three) at different exposure settings.
Auto-servo AF
In AF-A or Auto-servo AF, the camera automatically selects Single-servo autofocus if the subject is stationary or Continuous-servo AF if the subject is moving. The shutter will only be released (snap a photo) if the camera is able to focus.
Auto-servo AF
Auto Slow Sync
Auto Slow Sync is a flash mode that is used when shooting portraits at night.
Auto Slow Sync
Auto Slow Sync Red Eye
Auto Slow Sync Red-Eye is a flash mode that combines Red-Eye reduction with Slow Sync. It is used when shooting portraits against a backdrop of night scenery. Use of a tripod is suggested, to prevent blurring caused by camera shake.
Auto Slow Sync Red Eye
Auto White Balance
In Nikon D-SLRs, Auto White Balance combines with the Scene Recognition System to analyze each scene's light sources, cross-referencing this information with 5,000 actual picture data examples from over 20,000 images in the camera's onboard white balance database.

A digital camera's white balance setting compensates for the different colors of various light sources—fluorescent, which has a "green" cast, or a cooler-than-daylight light balance; incandescent, which has a "yellow" or a warmer-than-daylight white balance; and daylight—so that white objects in a scene appear white regardless of the color temperature (the warmth or coolness) of the light source. Even under mixed lighting or difficult light sources like mercury vapor lights, auto white balance technology calculates an ideal white balance for remarkably faithful colors.             

For a thorough understanding of white balance and how it influences the final image, read Lindsay Silverman's article Setting White Balance
Autumn Colors Scene Mode
This scene mode, available on select Nikon digital cameras, is designed to take vivid photographs of scenes with colorful red and yellow autumn leaves.
Autumn Colors Scene Mode
Advanced Video Coding is a standard for video compression.
AVI Stands for Audio Video Interleave, a multimedia format used to record video.
A/V Out
Refers to a connection port for output of audio and video from a Nikon camera to a television using RCA plugs (composite yellow for video with mono white or stereo white and red for audio).
Back Arrow
Use the back button to return to the previous screen you were on, when using the COOLPIX S800c digital camera.
Back Arrow
Back Focus
Back focal distance, meaning the distance from the tip of the lens' furthest rear surface to the film/image sensor surface where the image is focused.
General term for anything behind the main subject in a photograph.
Lighting that illuminates the subject from a position opposite the position of the camera.
Refers to the effect seen when shooting underwater and the fine suspended particles in the water are illuminated by flash lighting close to the camera's lens, and show up on film or the digital image.
A safety precaution against losing precious image or other electronic data. You can back-up one image file or an entire computer's worth of data. Back-up options include CDs/DVDs, external hard disk drives, and online storage sites such as Nikon's myPicturetown.com website. If the original file(s) are lost or corrupted, you can restore them with a back-up copy.
Balanced Composition
An image composed to create a harmonious distribution or arrangement of objects, tones or patterns.
Bandwidth is the maximum throughput or capacity that a computer network can handle.
Barrel Distortion
A lens effect in which the straight lines in an image appear to be inflated or sphere shaped.
Battery Calibration
Select Nikon battery chargers, which are used for newer rechargeable Lithium Ion batteries, are equipped with a battery calibration feature. Calibrate the battery as required to ensure the accuracy of the camera and charger battery level displays.
Beach Scene Mode
A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras, that lets you capture the brightness of beaches or sunlit expanses of water with the correct exposure in such a brightly lit situation.
Beach/Snow Scene Mode
A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras, designed for use when taking photos of snow in bright sunlight or brightly lit sandy beaches, ensuring the exposure is correct for the bright scene.
Beach/Snow Scene Mode
Bellows Attachment
A flexible, light-proof enclosure placed between the camera and the lens for close-up and macro photography. The desired reproduction ratio can be obtained by adjusting the bellows. Provides a higher reproduction ratio than extension rings.
Best Moment Capture Mode
This mode, available on select Nikon 1 digital cameras is ideal for fast, hard to capture subjects. By selecting this mode, you can choose to release the shutter as the scene plays back in slow motion (Slow View) or let the camera choose the best shot (Smart Photo Selector).
Best Moment Capture Mode
Bi-directional (B) frames are encoded based on an interpolation from I- and P-frames that come before and after them. B-frames require little space, but can take longer to decompress because they're reliant on frames that may be reliant on other frames. A Group of Pictures (GOP) can begin with a B-frame, but can't end with one.
Bird Watching Scene Mode
Bird Watching Mode is a Scene Mode available in select Nikon COOLPIX digital cameras such as the P600. This Scene Mode will assist you in taking photos of birds in the wild. When chosen, this mode allows you to select Single or Continuous.
Bird Watching Scene Mode
A unit of measurement indicating the information capacity of one binary digit.
A pixel-by-pixel description of an image, where each pixel is a separate element.
Blinking Highlights
A feature of Nikon digital SLR cameras, the blinking highlights display indicates areas of the photograph in which highlight detail is missing.
When using this feature, the camera detects that a human subject may have closed their eyes immediately after it recognizes the face. When this happens, the "Did someone blink?" screen will be displayed on the monitor to check the picture taken.
Blink Proof
Blossom Scene Mode
A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras that is designed for taking great photos of fields of flowers or other landscape that are full of blossoming flowers.
Blossom Scene Mode
Bluetooth is a proprietary open wireless technology standard that is used for the exchange of data over short distances. Bluetooth can connect several devices together, whether fixed or mobile. Bluetooth is often used to connect wireless communication devices (cellphones) with other devices such as an earpiece/microphone for talking on a Bluetooth compatible cellular phone. The COOLPIX S800c digital camera offers Wi-Fi and Bluetooth connectivity.
A way of softening an image or part of an image.
Blu-ray Disk
Blu-ray (BD) is an optical disk storage medium superseding the DVD format. It can store six times more data than a DVD. The name refers to the blue laser used to read the disk. Blu-ray disks normally have a capacity of 25 gigabytes. Double sided Blu-ray disks have a capacity of 50 gigabytes.
The effect of a soft out of focus background that you get when shooting a subject, usually a portrait using a fast lens at the widest aperture such as f/2.8 or wider.
Bounce Light
Refers to a flash unit aimed at a reflecting surface, such as a wall or ceiling, to illuminate the subject with reflected light.
An exposure technique to assure an accurate, or preferable, exposure by shooting a sequence of images at different settings.
Broad Lighting
When photographing a portrait subject, broad lighting is the technique whereby you place the main light on the side of the face which is facing the camera and light source. It is often used to give a fuller look to the subject's face.
BSS (Best Shot Selector)
An exclusive Nikon technology, Best Shot Selector automatically selects the image with the sharpest focus from a series of up to ten consecutive images; only the sharpest shot is saved to the memory card.  

When Best Shot Selector is chosen, a series of images are stored in the camera's memory where they are evaluated by the camera's computer. The single image with the highest level of detail is then automatically transferred to the memory card.
Memory in a camera or digital device that stores information before it is written to a storage source.
The action of the digital camera preloading data into a reserved area of its memory. Certain Nikon cameras feature modes that utilize the buffering of image or video data specific to the chosen mode.

With regards to the Nikon 1 camera system, the camera fills the buffer with data before the shutter is fully depressed. When using the Smart Photo Selector mode, the camera stores this pre-recorded data and can access it if the data holds the best shots taken. When using the Motion Snapshot mode, the video captured before and after the still image is captured is stored in the camera's buffer for use in creating the final Motion Snapshot.
Bulb (B Setting)
A shutter speed setting that holds the shutter open for as long as the shutter release button remains pressed. Commonly used for long time-exposures. When using the Bulb setting, use a cable release to make sure you don't cause camera shake.
Bulb (B Setting)
Selectively darkening part of a photo using an image editing program or a mechanical technique in a traditional darkroom. Also the writing of material to a CD or DVD.
Burst (Continuous)
The digital SLRs' version of a film camera's motor drive sequence.
Butterfly Lighting
A lighting technique that is flattering when used with most portrait subjects. It is called Butterfly lighting because of the distinctive butterfly shaped shadow that is present under the subject's nose from the placement of the light(s). The main light is placed above and in the same direction the subject is facing and so produces even, soft light.
A unit of measurement of information storage equaling eight bits.
Cable Release
A wire and button device designed to allow photographers to trip the camera's shutter without touching the camera. Generally used with a tripod-mounted camera to insure even greater steadiness.
Camera Control Pro 2
Nikon software that provides simplified remote control of Nikon D-SLR cameras from a personal computer. Picture Control Utility: In certain Nikon digital SLRs such as the D3, D700, D300, D90, D3100 and D7000, customized image adjustment, including tone compensation curve data, can be saved to tailor the camera's behavior to the photographer's vision, improving efficiency when using multiple cameras at the same time. Software is compatible with Wi-Fi operation. Also compatible with Nikon's Image Authentication Function. For more information about Camera Control Pro 2, click here.
Photos taken of people acting in a natural, spontaneous, unposed way. Often used to describe a category of wedding photographs.
Candlelight Scene Mode
A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras that allows you to capture the ambient lighting of a candlelit scene.
Candlelight Scene Mode
Card Reader
A device used by photographers to read the image data on media cards. A card reader connects to computer via USB or FireWire and allows for the fast and easy downloading of image data from the card to the computer. It is more efficient than connecting the camera to the computer via USB to view or download images.
The reflection of a light source in a subject's eyes. Intentionally creating a catchlight by providing a small amount of illumination with a flash or reflector can make your subject look more vivid.
Charge coupled device, one of the two main types of image sensors used in digital cameras.
CC Filter
A color compensating filter. It enables you to make fine adjustments of color tone or color density in color photography.
CD-Recordable. A compact disc that holds up to 700 megabytes of digital information. A CD-R disc can be written to only once. Ideal for long-time storage of data or photos.
CD-Rewritable. Similar in virtually all respects to a CD-R except a CD-RW disc can be written and erased many times. Not preferred for long-time storage of data or photos.
CEC stands for Consumer Electronics Control. CEC is a standard that allows for a camera that is connected to an HDTV to playback images/video with most HDTV remote controls.
Center-Weighted Fill-Flash
A fill-flash technique that uses the camera’s center-weighted meter for ambient light exposure measurement, and uses center-weighted flash metering.
Center-Weighted Metering
Meter sensitivity is biased toward the center of the viewfinder. Recommended when the subject is in the center of the picture.
Center-Weighted Metering
Child Scene Mode
A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras. The Child scene mode is used for photographing snapshots of children; skin tones will appear natural and soft while clothing and backgrounds will be vivid.
Child Scene Mode
Chromatic Aberration
A phenomenon in which light rays passing through a lens focus at different points, depending on their wavelength. Axial chromatic aberration is a variation in focal length; lateral chromatic aberration, a variation in magnification. Lateral chromatic aberration: Light wavelengths differ depending upon color. Differences in the length of the wavelengths result in changes in image magnification and become visible at image peripheries. Lateral Chromatic Aberration is the cause of color fringing. Lateral chromatic aberration is reduced to some degree by combining different lens elements with different refractive indexes, but optically speaking, it cannot be completely eliminated. In addition to red and its complimentary color, cyan, and blue and its complimentary color, yellow, some lenses may exhibit complex color fringing that combines these two primary types. It is greatly reduced by low-dispersion ED glass.
A person who uses a motion picture camera to record the actual film footage shot during the making of a motion picture. Director of Photography is an equivalent title. On large budget "Hollywood" productions, cinematographers or director's of photography are responsible for the artistic and technical decisions related to capture of the film (or digital video, as many of today's motion pictures are being recorded using digital capture devices.)
The art and science of photographing a motion picture. The cinematographer is responsible for capturing the actual film footage using a motion picture camera which can be film or digital based.
CIPA Standard
The Camera & Imaging Product Association (CIPA) is an organization that conducts performance testing on photographic equipment and provides standard measurement results. Nikon Inc. uses the CIPA Standard when providing information on the shots per charge battery information for its cameras. Example: A Nikon D3S equipped with an AF-S NIKKOR 24-70mm f/2.8G ED lens, captured 4,200 images when measured at 23 degrees C/73.4 degrees F (plus or minus 2 degrees C/3.6 degrees F) under the following test conditions: lens cycled from infinity to minimum range and one photograph taken at default settings once every 30 seconds. Live view not used. Real life results will vary depending on factors such as temperature, use conditions and the number of times the battery is recharged.
Circle of Confusion
In photography, the circle of confusion (CoC) is used to determine the depth of field, the part of an image that is acceptably sharp. A standard value of CoC is often associated with each image format, but the most apprpriate value depends on visual acuity, viewing conditions and the amount of enlargement. Properly, this is the maximum permissible circle of confusion diameter limit, or the circle of confusion criterion, but is simply called circle of confusion.

Real lenses do not focus all rays perfectly, and so, even at best focus, a point is imaged as a spot rather than a point. The smallest such spot that a lens can produce is often referred to as the circle of least confusion.
Circular Polarizing Filter
Converts linear polarized light waves to circular polarized light waves. Required whenever polarizing is desired using autofocus cameras and cameras that have semi-silvered reflex mirrors.
Clear Color Display
This innovative technology improves screen visibility for a more vivid, clear image when taking and sharing pictures. Reflections are minimized while contrast and power savings are improved. (In select COOLPIX models).
Clear Color Display
The general term for pictures taken at relatively close distances to achieve from 1/10 life-size (1:10) to life-size (1:1) images.
Close-up Attachment Lens
These lenses provide an easy way to increase magnification. Even when attached, you can use automatic exposure control and TTL metering. All lenses are treated with Nikon Integrated Coating to improve contrast and reduce flare. The higher the close-up lens number, the closer you can focus.
Close Up Scene Mode
Close up is a scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras used to photograph small objects and subjects at close range.
Close Up Scene Mode
Cloudy White Balance Setting
Cloudy is a white balance setting. When manually setting the white balance on your digital camera, and shooting under cloudy lighting conditions you use the cloudy setting to balance the available light so it is captured correctly by the camera.
Cloudy White Balance Setting
Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor, one of the two main types of image sensors used in digital cameras. The Nikon COOLPIX CMOS image sensor with a backside illumination structure increases the amount of light that each pixel receives. The resulting improvement in noise and sensitivity reduction makes the select COOLPIX cameras more capable when shooting night scenes or in dark indoor situations. CMOS Technology provides Full HD 1080p movie recordings.
Cyan, magenta, yellow and black, the primary colors used in commercial color printing from which all other printing colors are derived.
A term related to digital video, a codec is a device or computer program that is capable of encoding and/or decoding a digital data stream or signal.
Color Cast
If the white balance of a scene does not match the lighting under which the scene is being photographed, a color cast can occur. For example, daylight is normally cooler than incandescent lighting, so if you photograph a subject lit by an incandescent light and the white balance of the camera is set for daylight, the image will look warmer because that type of lighting is warmer (orangeish) in color than daylight. If the camera was set for incandescent and you photograph a subject in daylight, the image would look cooler (blueish). When shooting RAW (NEF), you can readjust the white balance in Nikon Capture NX2 in post production.
Color Conversion Filter
A filter that alters the color temperature of light to make it suitable for the film in use. It enables you to use daylight-type film indoors or tungsten-type film outdoors.
Color Sketch Effect
A Special Effect available on certain Nikon D-SLR cameras. The camera detects and colors the outlines of subjects in the scene for a color sketch effect. When shooting D-movies in this mode, the video playback looks like a slide show made up of a series of still photos.
Color Sketch Effect
Color Temperature
A scale used for rating the color quality of light. Measured in degrees Kelvin (K). The temperature of daylight on a sunny day is expressed as 5500K; light from a tungsten lamp, 3200K to 3400K.
One of Seidel's five aberrations. The image of a point source of light is prevented from being brought into focus, but instead appears shaped as a comet or teardrop. Coma can be reduced by stopping down the lens.
Commander Mode
For cameras that offer this feature (check your manual to see if yours offers this feature) the D-SLR's built-in flash or external accessory Speedlight can be set to Commander mode, which makes that flash the master flash, controlling remote (optional) flash units in one or more groups.
A type of storage card, available in a range of capacities, that's used in digital cameras to store images captured by the camera. The card can be erased when the images have been transferred or are no longer needed.
The arrangement of elements in a photograph.
Comprehensive Dust Reduction System
Special care should be taken when changing lenses in order to avoid the possibility of dirt or dust entering the camera. Once inside the camera, foreign matter may adhere to the low-pass filter and show up in photographs. To help prevent the appearance of these artifacts in photographs Nikon has created the Comprehensive Dust Reduction System. This system uses a series of high resonance frequencies to vibrate the optical low-pass filter. This dislodges dust on the front of the sensor and reduces dust spots appearing on images. This system combined with the existing Image Dust Off system in Capture NX 2 provides a full dust prevention system for photographers.

Sensor cleaning can be set to be performed manually when required by selecting the 'Clean now' setting, or automatically by selecting the 'Clean at startup/shutdown' setting. The 'Clean at startup/shutdown' setting has options for when the camera automatically performs an automatic sensor clean, either each time the camera is turned on, turned off or both.

Sensor cleaning takes approximately three seconds to complete. If the shutter release is depressed during a sensor clean, cleaning will be cancelled. This enables images to be taken even if a sensor clean has started.
Refers to reducing the quality of digital data in an effort to conserve storage space. For example, the JPEG file format is a compressed format. Certain Nikon cameras that offer RAW capture, using the Nikon Electronic File format (NEF) can
Continuous High Shooting
Continuous is one of the shooting options found in the Auto Mode of select Nikon digital cameras. Continuous allows you to take a series of pictures. Depending upon your camera model, the battery life and remaining memory in the buffer Continuous High lets you take more frames per second than Continuous Low; however if the flash is fired, only one picture will be taken.
Continuous High Shooting
Continuous Low Shooting
Continuous is one of the shooting options found in the Auto Mode of select Nikon digital cameras. Continuous allows you to take a series of pictures. Depending upon your camera model, the battery life and remaining memory in the buffer Continuous Low lets you take fewer frames per second than Continuous High; however if the flash is fired, only one picture will be taken.
Continuous Low Shooting
Continuous Servo AF
A mode of autofocus in which focus detection continues as long as the shutter release button is lightly pressed.
Continuous Servo AF
Continuous Shooting
Continuous is one of the shooting options found in the Auto Mode of Nikon digital cameras. Continuous allows you to take a series of pictures.
Continuous Shooting
Continuous Single Shooting
The camera will take one photograph each time the shutter button is released. Continuous Single is often the default setting.
Continuous Single Shooting
A measure of the rate of an image's change of brightness. High contrast implies dark black and bright white content; medium contrast, a good spread from black to white; low contrast, a small spread of values from black to white.
Contrast-Control Filter
Used with black-and-white film to emphasize contrast in a picture. Yellow (Y), orange (O), and red (R) filters are available with contrast increasing in this order.
Conversion Factor
Used to describe changes in apparent magnification when a 35mm lens is used on a D-SLR with a sensor smaller than 24mm x 36mm.
The trade name given to Point & Shoot digital cameras manufactured by Nikon.
COOLPIX Projector Camera
COOLPIX compact digital camera with a built-in projector.
COOLPIX Projector Camera
The trade name for film scanners manufactured by Nikon. Nikon COOLSCAN scanners have been discontinued as of December 2010.
CRC (Close Range Correction) System
The Close-Range Correction (CRC) system is one of Nikon's most important focusing innovations, for it provides superior picture quality at close focusing distances and increases the focusing range. With CRC, the lens elements are configured in a "floating element" design wherein each lens group moves independently to achieve focusing. This ensures superior lens performance even when shooting at close distances. The CRC system is used in fisheye, wide-angle, micro and selected medium telephoto NIKKOR lenses.
CRC (Close Range Correction) System
CRC (Close Range Correction) System
The Close-Range Correction (CRC) system is one of Nikon's most important focusing innovations, for it provides superior picture quality at close focusing distances and increases the focusing range. With CRC, the lens elements are configured in a "floating element" design wherein each lens group moves independently to achieve focusing. This ensures superior lens performance even when shooting at close distances. The CRC system is used in fisheye, wide-angle, micro and selected medium telephoto NIKKOR lenses.
CRC (Close Range Correction) System
Creative Mode
The Creative Mode is a shooting mode found on the mode dial of the Nikon 1 J2 camera. A variety of scene modes are available within the Creative Mode including: P/S/A/M, Night Landscape, Night Portrait, Backlighting (HDR), Easy Panorama, Soft (filter effect), Miniature Effect, and Selective Color. The Creative Mode is only for shooting still images, and will not work in movies mode.
Creative Mode
Creative Palette
Creative Palette puts creativity at a photographer’s fingertips, by allowing you to modify the look of a photo via the touchscreen LCD or multi-selector before you shoot. This is a new feature in the Nikon 1 V3. The camera will automatically detect one of four scenes: portrait, close-up, landscape or other and will then display a ring showing four effects that can be applied to the scene. Brightness, saturation and white balance will change between the different effects as a finger is rotated around the ring or the multi-selector is rotated, so what you see is what you get.
Creative Palette
Trimming unwanted parts of an image.
Curvature of Field
One of Seidel's five aberrations. Curvature of Field is a phenomenon in which straight lines are not rendered perfectly straight in the picture. Curvature of field can be improved but not eliminated by stopping down the lens.
CX Format
The CX format utilizes a Dual AF CMOS image sensor with the dimensions: 13.2mm x 8.8mm. The Nikon 1 digital cameras utilize the CX format imaging sensor.
Daylight-Type Film
A film balanced for proper color rendition when exposed in daylight.
DC (Defocus Control)
A lens which allows the photographer to control the degree of spherical aberration in the foreground or background by rotating the lens' DC ring. This will create a rounded out-of-focus blur that is ideal for portrait photography. With the DC control set at zero, a DC-Nikkor lens operates in the same way as a non-DC lens with the same focal length and maximum aperture. A DC-NIKKOR lens will be labeled as such on the lens barrel.
The clarity of detail within a photograph.
Delayed Response Remote
The Delayed Remote mode is used when shooting with select Nikon cameras and the ML-L3 remote control, to ensure no camera shake will occur. The Delayed Remote sets the camera's shutter to release between 2 - 10 seconds after the shutter button on the ML-L3 remote control is pressed.
Delayed Response Remote
Depth Gauge
Available in select cameras such as the Nikon 1 AW1. Calibrate the Depth Gauge on the surface before you enter the water, setting it to zero. Then, you can view your depth while you’re shooting or even include it in the EXIF data that is recorded along with the image.
Depth of Field
The zone of acceptable sharpness in front of and behind the subject on which the lens is focused. Depth of field varies according to focal length of the lens, chosen aperture and shooting distance.
Depth-of-Field Preview
A feature on advanced SLRs that closes the lens down to the actual taking aperture to enable you to see the picture's depth-of-field.
Depth of Field Scale
A scale on the lens barrel with the markings of f/stops and distances, which shows the distance range that is in focus for a chosen f/stop.
Depth of Focus
A measurement of the distance behind the lens wherein the film plane will remain sharply in focus. Depth of focus is sometimes referred to as lens-to-film tolerance.
The mechanical device inside a lens that controls the aperture.
Any device or substance placed between the central light source and the subject that softens or spreads the light.
Technique of taking film or digital still images or video by attaching a camera to a Fieldscope or Spotting Scope. In addition to camera equipment, Nikon also manufactures Fieldscopes, and the array of attachments and adapters necessary to marry our Fieldscopes to Nikon COOLPIX and Nikon D-SLRs. Digiscoping lets you capture photographs without the use of traditional photographic lenses. Bird watchers and naturalists are some of the people who capture close-up images of wildlife by digiscoping.
Any device or system in which information is stored or manipulated by on/off impulses.
Digital Image
An image that is represented by discrete numerical values organized in a two-dimensional array. The conversion of images into a digital form is known as digital imaging.
Digital Photography
Photography that utilizes a digital camera to produce the image.
Digital Zoom
The digital zoom uses software interpolation to "zoom" into the image further than the actual optical zoom lens in the camera allows. Because digital zooms use interpolation instead of an actual zoom lens, the resulting image will be of lower quality.
Digital Zoom
Conversion of analog information into digital format so that it can be used by a computer.
Step by step tutorials on the use of current Nikon D-SLR cameras, NIKKOR lenses and Speedlights.
A measure of lens power equal to the reciprocal of the focal length. Eyeglass prescriptions are generally indicated in diopters. For cameras, the diopter is used as the measure of the dioptric power for the image in the viewfinder.
Dioptric Power
Apparent image distance through optics such as viewfinders. Rated in diopters. A plus sign is used for positive lenses, a minus sign for negative lenses.
The term used to describe optical storage media (compact disc).
The term used to describe magnetic storage media (floppy disk).
A phenomenon in which white light rays deviate by different wavelength amounts resulting in a spectrum. The rainbow created by a prism is the result of dispersion.
There are three types of distortion that could affect the shape of the image: Barrel: image deformation causes a rectangle to swell in the center, looking like a barrel (the corners of the rectangle are greater than 90 degrees); Pincushion: image deformation causes the sides of a rectangle to move inward, forming a pincushion or star shape (the corners of the rectangle are less than 90 degrees); or Combinations: the two types can also be combined.

Distortion cannot be corrected by stopping down the lens. It can be improved by the optical combination of positive and negative lens elements.
Distortion Control
Available in select COOLPIX models, Distortion Control provides optimum image quality for architectural and landscape photographs. The feature ensures precise subject reproduction and avoids the image distortion that occurs at wide-angle zoom settings or at the peripheries of an image.

A function built into several Nikon D-SLRS and into Nikon's Capture NX2 imaging program that allows you to brighten subjects that have been underexposed or enhance the contrast of an overexposed subject.
D-Movie Mode
An innovative feature first introduced by Nikon, DSLRs that can capture HD movies, is now available in the new D7000, D3100, in 1080p, and also available in the D3S, D300S, D5000 and D90 in 720p. Capture sound with the on-board microphone or through the external mic input on select models for vocal memories. The dramatic impact of your movie making is leveraged by the legendary line of NIKKOR lenses, from ultra-wide-angle and fisheye to super-telephoto.

The camera's Live View capability makes D-Movies possible. Live View is essentially a video image, played back to the LCD monitor in near real-time for viewing. D-Movie mode records that image to the camera's memory card.

D-Movies are enhanced by the fact that they are made using NIKKOR lenses, which provide an incredible choice of focal lengths as well as legendary optical quality. They also benefit from an image sensor much larger than a typical camcorder, resulting in higher image quality and exceptional high ISO performance during low-light shooting.
Selectively lightening part of a photo using an image editing program or a mechanical technique in a traditional darkroom.
Double Exposure
Two exposures on the same frame. With film cameras, the film is not wound forward after the first exposure. In digital photography, a double exposure is most commonly made by combining two images using an image editing program.
A file or other information transferred from a camera, media card, CD, DVD, hard drive or the Internet to a computer or from one piece of computer equipment to another.
Moving computer data from one location to another. Though the term is normally used to describe the transfer of data from the Internet, it is also used to describe the transfer of photos from a camera's memory card to a computer.
Dots per inch. A measurement of the resolution of a digital photo or digital device, including digital cameras and printers. The higher the number, the greater the resolution.
DPOF is the abbreviation for Digital Print Order Format. DPOF can be found on all Nikon COOLPIX cameras. It allows users to choose which images they wish to print, from the camera. The camera saves this information in special files on the media card for use at a later time when the images are downloaded to a computer, printer or photo kiosk.
Draw Scene Mode
A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras. When using a COOLPIX digital camera with a touchscreen display, you can draw pictures or write memos on the display and save them as photos using the Draw scene mode.
Draw Scene Mode
DSCN is an identifier that will begin the alpha/numeric string in the file name of an original still image or movie taken with a Nikon digital camera. After the DSCN, a file number will be automatically assigned in ascending order.
A digital single-lens reflex camera.
The camera measures the amount of light reflected from the subject through the lens to automatically control flash output level and give correct exposure.
D-Type NIKKOR Lens
A NIKKOR lens that sends distance information to the microcomputer of a dedicated Nikon camera. D-type lenses can be distinguished by a model name in which the letter D follows the maximum f/number.
Dual Shutter System
Certain Nikon digital cameras such as the Nikon 1 V1 digital camera utilize a dual shutter system, allowing you to choose from Mechanic, Electronic or Electronic (HI) shutters depending upon your shooting situation. The flash X sync speed of the Nikon 1 V1 digital camera when using the Mechanical Shutter is 1/250 of a second or slower. The Mechanical shutter offers a shutter speed range of 1/4,000 of a second–30 seconds in 1/3 EV steps, Bulb and Time (with optional ML-L3 remote). The Electronic Shutter is silent and is ideal for use where camera sounds are undesirable. The flash X sync speed of the Nikon 1 V1 digital camera when using the Electronic Shutter is 1/60 of a second or slower. The Electronic shutter offers a shutter speed range of 1/16,000 of a second – 30 seconds in 1/3 EV steps, Bulb and Time (with optional ML-L3 remote). The Electronic (HI) Shutter's default setting captures images at a rate of 10 fps. It does support 30 and 60 fps frame rates. Face detection is disabled when using the Electronic (HI) Shutter.
Dusk/Dawn Scene Mode
A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras. This scene mode preserves the colors seen in the weak natural light that is visible before sunrise or after sunset. It is suggested a tripod be used when shooting in this scene mode.
Dusk/Dawn Scene Mode
Digital Video Disc. A type of CD-ROM with greater data storage capacity and access rate. Most commonly used for movies and video data, its high capacity—4.7 gigabytes—makes it ideal for storage and backup of digital files and photographs.
DX-Coded Film
Film that features embedded information that allows the camera to automatically set the film's speed.
DX Format
Refers to Nikon cameras that feature a 1.5 magnification factor imaging sensor. Nikon digital SLRs have either an FX or a DX sensor. The